1. Don't miss our 7th annual American Craft Beer Fest featuring 640+ beers from 140+ brewers this May 30 & 31 in Boston, MA! Buy your tickets now!
  2. BeerAdvocate on your phone?! True story. Try the beta now.

Oude Tart - The Bruery

Oude TartOude Tart

Displayed for educational use only; do not reuse.
BA SCORE
95
world-class

1,642 Ratings
THE BROS
-
no score

(send 'em beer!)
Ratings: 1642
Reviews: 328
rAvg: 4.27
pDev: 9.84%


Brewed by:
The Bruery visit their website
California, United States

Style | ABV
Flanders Red Ale |  7.50% ABV

Availability: Fall

Notes/Commercial Description:
Oude Tart is our take on a Flanders Style red ale. It has won back to back gold medals in that category at the World Beer Cup (2010 & 2012) as well as a gold medal at the Great American Beer Festival in 2010. This sour red ale ages in oak barrels for anywhere from 6 to 18 months before being carefully blended to taste. The resulting beer is pleasantly sour with hints of leather, dark fruit and toasty oak.

(Beer added by: Overlord on 12-20-2009)
Beer: Ratings & Reviews
Sort by:  Latest | High | Low | Top Reviewers
Ratings: 1,642 | Reviews: 328 | Show All Ratings:
Photo of SHODriver
SHODriver

California

4.5/5  rDev +5.4%
look: 4.5 | smell: 4.5 | taste: 4.5 | feel: 4.5 | overall: 4.5

Bottle from 2012

A: poured into a Duvel Tulip to a deep brown with a slight red hue. the beer is topped by a fluffy and rocky two finger light tan head that fades to a nearly invisible collar around the edge of the glass
S: smells of sour cherries, vanilla, funk and oak
T: taste is sour cherries, with a strong acetic sourness, a bit of funk, some vanilla, slight caramel and oak. swallow is more sour cherry, funk, and oak
M: lighter side of medium in body with soft and adequate carbonation. this beer has a drying finish
O: This is a fantastic beer and a great representative for the style. It just doesn't get much better

Serving type: bottle

04-09-2014 04:05:26 | More by SHODriver
Photo of Gtreid
Gtreid

Florida

4.33/5  rDev +1.4%
look: 4 | smell: 4.5 | taste: 4.5 | feel: 4 | overall: 4

Opened during our sour tasting last weekend. 750 ml bottled poured into a tasting glass.

A: Orangish red color. The pour dropped a fizzy off white head the receeded to thin rim and left some lace.

A: Notes of cherries, raspberries, oak, bread, and brett. Acidic sourness and some sweetness to balance things out.

T: More of the cherries and other red fruits. The oak and bread balance the acidic tartness quite well. A good dose of the brett, but not overpowering. finishes dry and tart, but at the same time, somewhat sweet.

M: Great carbonation levels. Medium body, slightly sharp.

D and overall impression: Drinkability was very high. the sourness is not overbearing, meaning I could have a couple. Overall, I thought this was an outstanding brew, and it rankied right up there with the best of our night. Skal.

Serving type: bottle

07-27-2010 18:05:05 | More by Gtreid
Photo of coreyfmcdonald
coreyfmcdonald

Georgia

2.98/5  rDev -30.2%
look: 2 | smell: 4.5 | taste: 2.5 | feel: 2.5 | overall: 3

750ml bottle into a wide flute, 2012 vintage

A: Pours a muddy brown with not quite a finger of head that quickly recedes to a ring. Certainly not the prettiest beer I've ever seen.

S: Intense and complex. The beer starts out with sour cherries up front balanced by caramel and bourbon. I get lots of dark fruit - plum and raisin as well as leather.

T: Lactic and acetic acid are followed quickly by plum, leather, and tobacco. Sour cherries are there, but not nearly as strong as in the aroma. The acetic nature of this beer is a bit strong for me. I get some spicy oak in the finish as well.

M: A bit thin and undercarbonated.

O: This beer smells amazing - so complex. The flavor does not quite live up to the aroma, though. I remember this tasting better in past years, too.

Serving type: bottle

12-01-2012 22:19:23 | More by coreyfmcdonald
Photo of ShanePB
ShanePB

Pennsylvania

3.45/5  rDev -19.2%
look: 2.5 | smell: 4 | taste: 3.5 | feel: 2.5 | overall: 3.5

2011 bottle poured into multiple tulips. Thanks to Scott for sending a couple my way!

A: Opened with almost no sound and poured the same. Absolutely no head, even with a vigorous pour. Murky body, brown and ruby colored, no lace and no retention (obviously). Bleak, sad looking beer to be honest.

S: Oak, vanilla, cherry, dark grapes, tart fruits. A certain acidic quality comes through in the end which I expected to be here. It's actually a very good smelling beer despite how things started out.

T: Cherry and dark fruit tartness is immediate, followed by the barrel aging flavors of vanilla and oak. It's slightly acidic towards the end of the palate. Some faint citrus notes are in the finish, leaving a bit of a dryness on the mouth into the linger.

M: Seriously under carbonated, this is the absolute pitfall of this beer. If I move the beer in my mouth enough, I do get some bubbles. A touch dry in the linger, expected.

Look, I understand this is bottle conditioned and that with time it will carbonate more and get more tart. However, it's a complete shock to me that The Bruery would ship these bottles out to consumers like this to enjoy fresh. There is no way this is how the beer is supposed to be. I'll be sitting on my other bottles, and hopefully they'll take a complete 180 in a year or so.

Serving type: bottle

10-15-2011 13:31:08 | More by ShanePB
Photo of Lunch
Lunch

Maryland

4.22/5  rDev -1.2%
look: 4 | smell: 4 | taste: 4.5 | feel: 4 | overall: 4

Served on-tap at EBF 2010 in Boston, MA into a tasting glass at the appropriate temperature (02/20/10).

A: Wonderful and vibrant shade of dark red with some sediment and a white head foamy head.

S: The best smelling sour I have had. Notes of wood, red fruit, grapes, vanilla, and tart cherries.

T: Oak surrounding tart cherries, grapes, raspberries, and some vanilla. Very unique and extremely clean with a somewhat dry and sweet finish.

M: Medium-bodied with moderate carbonation with a nice degree of tartness and dry finish.

D: The 7.5% abv. is hidden quite well and the tartness is never over-the-top.

Overall this beer was really nice and a great American interpretation on a Flanders Oud Bruin. The Bruery has crafted a fine beverage here. Recommended.

Serving type: on-tap

02-23-2010 21:30:48 | More by Lunch
Photo of djbreezy
djbreezy

Washington

4.45/5  rDev +4.2%
look: 4.5 | smell: 4.5 | taste: 4.5 | feel: 4 | overall: 4.5

Had this at Oregon Brewer's Fest

appearance - rich reddish amber, two finger head, good retention

smell - sweet and fruity

taste - sour cherry, light vinegar, low oak profile, sweet and fruity

mouthfeel - excellent carbonation, medium/heavy

drinkability - complex and sour, very flavorful, tasty treat

Serving type: bottle

07-27-2010 03:04:07 | More by djbreezy
Photo of waltonc
waltonc

Colorado

4.4/5  rDev +3%
look: 4.5 | smell: 4 | taste: 4.5 | feel: 4.5 | overall: 4.5

Pretty amazing beer - pours hazy dark reddish/brown with a lot of tan head. Smells of tart cherries, green apple, a dash of vinager, and has an earthy, mineral quality that I can't really articulate any better than that. Not quite leather, but sort of like it. Tastes like a blend of sweet and tart cherries and apples, and a perfect balance of dry yet slightly sweet. Not overly astringent or sour. In fact, the sourness is very mild. Medium bodied, fairly high carbonation. Overall, one of the best beers I've had from Bruery.

Serving type: bottle

02-20-2010 01:04:54 | More by waltonc
Photo of Holland
Holland

Illinois

4.35/5  rDev +1.9%
look: 4.5 | smell: 4 | taste: 4.5 | feel: 4 | overall: 4.5

A: brown with ruby highlights and a thin tan head that has decent retention, turning to nice lacing.

S: earthy, like grass, with lots of sour smells and kind of like some sour fruit like apple, cherry, and berries.

T: not super sour, but enough to be dominate the taste. Still it leaves room for the fruity flavors and finishes with sour and grassy flavor.

M: well carbonated, medium to light body, great crisp but not brutal feel.

O: excellent beer, great sourness, and lots more earthy flavor than I figured it would have. Will do again if I get the chance.

Serving type: bottle

06-27-2012 20:09:00 | More by Holland
Photo of Philousa
Philousa

California

3.94/5  rDev -7.7%
look: 3.25 | smell: 4 | taste: 4 | feel: 3.75 | overall: 4

Pours a murky brown with nary a head presence. The tartness is palpable, even in aroma. Aroma also has plum, berries, tart cherries, and other pit fruit. No hops to speak of. Tart cranberry starts things off with other berries, straw mainly, fading to earthy chocolate with some caramel, then old, rank, bitter hops. I'm guessing these are hallertauer, because I get some pollen/nectar as well. Feel is balanced and finish is very dry.

This is a damn good Oude bruin. Lots of flavors, and its very sour. A little thin, but it works well.

Serving type: bottle

07-22-2013 21:16:26 | More by Philousa
Photo of Jmoore50
Jmoore50

Nevada

4.65/5  rDev +8.9%
look: 4 | smell: 4 | taste: 5 | feel: 5 | overall: 4.5

This is one exquisite beer. Served into a Bruery glass.

The appearance is a nice dark brown amber with lighter copper edges. It has a nice frothy off-white head that sticks to everything. There is not clarity in this one, for this thing owns some thick haze.

The smell is sweet cherry, cinnamon, apples, sweet sugars, booze.

The taste is perfect, as well as the mouthfeel. The sourness in this one is perfect. There are nice sour green apples, vinegar, cinnamon and brown sugar, tart cherry. The mouthfeel is perfect because it is not overly sour, not overly tart. It has nice malty oak back to it that supports the sweetness. Delicious.

The drinkability is incredible, could drink a few bottles of this brew. Once again, the Bruery hits you with a left, then finishes you off right.

J

Serving type: bottle

05-09-2010 00:42:45 | More by Jmoore50
Photo of PeterIngemi
PeterIngemi

Massachusetts

4.38/5  rDev +2.6%
look: 4 | smell: 4 | taste: 4.5 | feel: 4.5 | overall: 4.5

Split a 750 ml poured into a duvel glass

A: pours a nice dark ruby brown with 3/4 of a finger of tan looking head that dissapates into a very light trim around the edges... Nice looking beer.

S: nice dark cherry skin aroma with a light hint of re wine vingar, nice oaky notes in the nose, a very nice rounded aroma, smells lightly tart mingling with the dark cherry like notes.

T: nice tart juicy citrus sour apple and sour cherry skin notes right up front, with a lemony sourness as well. Reminds me of sour patch kids. a bit more sour then I thought from the nose, which is a nice suprise to me, I had the opportunity to drink a bottle of the previous vintage last night , the 2011, and now the 12 tonight, this years seems a bit more tart and juicy right off the bat, where last years was a touch more mellow and rounded, I loved both bottles.... Equally awesome IMO. Nice tart cherry skin tannins mixed with a nice light toasted oakyness that rounds everything very nicley. An awesome brew.

M: nice medium body with a lush juicy feel, dry on this finish leaving the mouth with a slight pucker, I deffinatly feel like the 2012 was more sour then the 2011, which I like excellent mouthfeel.

O: awesome, one of my favorite sours, I can only imagine how awesome this is when it is actually uses cherries, I can't say enough about this beer.

Serving type: bottle

09-13-2012 02:26:09 | More by PeterIngemi
Photo of cfrances33
cfrances33

Illinois

3.98/5  rDev -6.8%
look: 3.5 | smell: 4 | taste: 4 | feel: 4 | overall: 4

Bottle poured into a HF stem.

Pour: Muddy maroon body with a finger of burnt white head. Recedes to a rim and leaves barely any lacing.

Smell: Tart cherries up front, followed by some pears. Some caramel malts come in next. Thats about it.

Taste: Incredibly sour cherries up front, followed by some tart pear and green apples. A pretty hefty caramel backbone supports, and goes along with a distinct vinegar acidity.

Mouthfeel: Holy sour! Hands down the most sour beer I've had yet, and too much so. Puckering. A sipper for this reason.

Overall: A nice flanders, but this is a bit too 'in your face' for me.

Serving type: bottle

11-29-2012 00:17:17 | More by cfrances33
Photo of Chriscrundwell12
Chriscrundwell12

Minnesota

4.1/5  rDev -4%
look: 4 | smell: 4.5 | taste: 4 | feel: 4 | overall: 4

750 ml bottle poured into a Darkness snifter, sharred with scoand.

Bottle 2011

A- Pours a one finger off white head that dissipates to a bubbly layer on top, dark brown burnt orange color, opaque.
S- Really nice aroma, sweet sour tartness, cherries, sour apple notes, slight oak in the aroma.
T- Very enjoyable, nice cherry notes, dark fruits, spice, nice tartness, sour apple, vinegar, oak characteristics from the barrels, really balanced overall.
M- Medium mouth feel, decent carbonation, smooth drinking, coats the palate, dry finish.
O- Really enjoyable beer from The Bruery. Not disappointed at all, really easy drinkability, and decent amount of complexity.

Serving type: bottle

02-05-2012 21:22:03 | More by Chriscrundwell12
Photo of Maxwell
Maxwell

Massachusetts

4.43/5  rDev +3.7%
look: 4 | smell: 4.5 | taste: 4.5 | feel: 4 | overall: 4.5

The beer pours a dark brown red with a creamy white ring of head on the edges. It’s too dark to really see through it and is hazy to boot, but there do seem to be bubbles traveling up the sides to suggest carbonation. The lacing stays on as a clinging ring of sticky dry bubbles. The beer smells like leathery dark cherry with a slight alcoholic bite in the back of the nose; it’s as if a dried cherry strip were created and then liquefied. Malt backbone is faint, but seems to be sweet and caramely. The tart cherry smell is the entirety of the bitters in this beer. There is also a faint note of creamy chocolate in the nose’s base which may also be the malt. The beer tastes puckeringly tart and cherry fruity with a faint chocolaty feel in the middle and a slight aftertaste. The tart cherry is the main taste in this beer though, and it shines through. Alcohol is completely hidden in the taste, blending in with the tartness to completely mask itself. There is also a great funk that hits the back of the tongue and suggests some fantastic spiciness. Vanilla notes are also present in the middle and aftertaste that provide a sweet and creamy taste. Mouthfeel is puckering and tart with the sour (obviously). The carbonation, however, is completely velvety and smooth, with a slight chewiness. Overall this is a fantastic beer. I already love the complexity of the beer’s flavor. This is admittedly my first Flemish red, and I am very happy with what it has proven to be. This beer is obviously worth a taste for anyone that’s a beer lover, especially sour beer lovers, and is also worth a try for anyone that loves sour tastes, especially Warheads! Try this beer.

Serving type: bottle

09-14-2012 22:49:58 | More by Maxwell
Photo of TheGordianKnot
TheGordianKnot

Tennessee

3.03/5  rDev -29%
look: 2.5 | smell: 3.5 | taste: 3 | feel: 2.5 | overall: 3

Thanks, John for sharing this... Poured into tasting snifter

A- Pours a very deep ruby brown color with a finger of pale cream head. The head dies almost instantaneously, leaving a still liquid, lurking in the glass.

S- Lemon zest is the main component here with a backing of grassy aromas. Finishes with acidic oak/young wood in the nose. Not incredibly complex or pronounced, but decent.

T/M- Not very sour at all as the nose prepped me for. This is more of a slightly tart (which is a potential overstatement in itself) flavor with hints of citrus fruits. It transitions into a funky, barn yard, hay-like finish on the palate. Moderate body with the acidity to keep it from coming off heavy, but the almost nonexistent carbonation doesn't help.

O- It is safe to say that all 4 of us that tasted this were greatly underwhelmed. It was a decent beer, but we felt this was not close to deserving of the hype. Maybe some age would help this develop, as that may be the only circumstance in which I would look forward to trying this again...

Serving type: bottle

12-20-2011 19:27:43 | More by TheGordianKnot
Photo of jamescain
jamescain

Texas

4.43/5  rDev +3.7%
look: 4 | smell: 4.5 | taste: 4.5 | feel: 4 | overall: 4.5

Poured into a Jester King wine glass. Big thanks to texasclimber for inviting me over again.

Appearance: Pours a cloudy orange-reddish brown with a thin off white head about a centimeter thick that fades to a thin lacing.

Aroma: Tart cherries, raisins, dark fruits, a hint of caramel and burnt sugar. A lot of sour and acidic notes that make my mouth water.

Taste: Sour cherries, dark fruits, a hint of tart apples and caramel.

Mouthfeel: Light bodied with medium-high carbonation and a dry sour finish.

Overall: Great beer, definitely the best Bruery beer I've had to date.

Serving type: bottle

11-08-2011 15:50:27 | More by jamescain
Photo of pmlondrigan
pmlondrigan

New York

4.43/5  rDev +3.7%
look: 4 | smell: 4.5 | taste: 4.5 | feel: 4 | overall: 4.5

major props to gford217 on this one!
Classic red, but better. I often find rodenbach to have a bit to much sweetness, this red does not have that problem. Dark brownish red, light tan thin head. Aroma of dark berries, sweet oak, lightly acitic hit you right off the bat. The aroma is nice but not overwhelming or too strong. The flavor is balanced between sweet malts and tartness and acidity from the yeast and barrel aging. Flavors of vanilla, light caramel are very clear. Also dark berries plentry of oak and a little leather. Easy to drink thanks to the pleasant carbonation level. Body and tartness match up well. I am so happy to have had this and so sad that it is not a year rounder.

Serving type: bottle

05-04-2010 01:29:32 | More by pmlondrigan
Photo of beerpirates
beerpirates

Belgium

4.23/5  rDev -0.9%
look: 4 | smell: 4 | taste: 4.5 | feel: 4 | overall: 4

75 cl bottel poured into my cantillon tulip gkass

A: Pours a solid and clear dark brown with deep ruby highlights when held to light.
S: I can smell the tart fruit as soon as I pop the cap on this baby. Sour cherries, lemons, sweet brown sugar, hints of vinegar, light sherry notes.
T: Taste is a bit more sour than the nose lead me to believe. Huge lemony tartness and red grapes ( cabarnet sauvignon ? ) Oak with hints of barnyard funk hit right up front. Sour cherries and a hint of sweetness sweep across the gullet before finishing with a lingering sweet sour and funky aftertaste.
M: Medium body and level of carbonation, tart acidic mouthfeel.
O: I really enjoyed this one, I’m glad I got to try it.

Serving type: bottle

02-21-2012 19:30:52 | More by beerpirates
Photo of Arenbeer
Arenbeer

Connecticut

4.5/5  rDev +5.4%
look: 4.5 | smell: 4.5 | taste: 4.5 | feel: 4.5 | overall: 4.5

1rst Release

750ml bottle into a Tulip glass

A- Pours a nice deep dark red with tons of carbonation streaming up making a nice 2 finger fluffy khaki head that sticks around. No retention whatsoever or any legs.

S- Sweet funk and barnyard up front with tons of dark cherries, green apples and vinous grapes. Also getting notes of leather, balsamic, and musty oak. Could live in this glass.

T- Up front the first thing you notice is the strong sour funk from the yeast. To follow some really nice flavors of vinegar, cherries, grapes, leather, and a slight bit of musty sweet oak to top it off.

M- Medium bodied with a good amount of bubbly carbonation and a strong sour dry finish that I love so much.

Overall this is hands down my favorite sour. So well balanced and so flavorful there's nothing bad I can say about this beer.

SkÅL!

Serving type: bottle

08-20-2011 00:14:03 | More by Arenbeer
Photo of ibbjamin
ibbjamin

California

4.1/5  rDev -4%
look: 4 | smell: 4.5 | taste: 4 | feel: 4 | overall: 4

Had a couple of these tonight at The Bruery when they opened it for tastings today. They ended up running out of it the same day they opened it to the public.

About an inch of white bubbly head. Reddish brown in color with little retention or lacing.

Has a tart, mildly sour nose with definite oak tones. Some vinegar notes as well, but nothing of the level of Duchesse De Bourgogne for example. Sour, but not a sour bomb by any means.

Taste is similar to the nose and is quite nice. Has oakey and vinous qualities taken from the barrels it was aged in for 18 months.

Mouth is on the dry side with mild astringency. A nice carbonation level. Medium body and pleasantly drinkable.

A pleasure to drink this.

Serving type: on-tap

12-27-2009 06:44:51 | More by ibbjamin
Photo of flannelman808
flannelman808

California

4.43/5  rDev +3.7%
look: 4 | smell: 4.5 | taste: 4.5 | feel: 4 | overall: 4.5

A: Murky brown ruby red with a light tan head. Retention is ok and lacing is about the same.

S: Sour grapes and tart cherry. The bouquet has just the slightest touch of acetic acid.

T: Mild acid overall and almost no vinager. This suggests the skin of young green table grapes before they have sweetened. Also subdued tart cherry and Meyer lemon flavors develop. Awesome stuff.

M: Soft, subtle, frothy.

O: Very good but more mild overall than I might have expected. Sour flavor is most definitely there but it is a very elegant one.

Serving type: bottle

10-14-2011 23:54:10 | More by flannelman808
Photo of gcamparone
gcamparone

Rhode Island

4.48/5  rDev +4.9%
look: 4 | smell: 4.5 | taste: 4.5 | feel: 4.5 | overall: 4.5

Poured from a 750 mL bottle into a snifter. Acquired from my awesome BIF friend, ufmj. Thanks man.

A- Pours a muddy brown, slightly cherry body with a fizzy white head that reduces very quickly and leaves no lacing or retention.

S- I get a lot of musty funkyness, sour grapes, leather, sour cherries, basement, and a distinct woddyness which is characteristic of barrel aged sours.

T- Starts off with a big acidic punch of sourness - lemon juice, vinegar, acetic acid, sour cherries and white wine. Immediately following is a musty, leathery, old flavor. The finish shows notes of wood and maybe some caramel.

M- Medium-light body, especially for 7.5% abv. The sourness makes it mildly easy to drink. Quite refreshing.

Overall a very nice Flanders ale. Very, very similar (I don't think I could tell the difference to be honest) to some of the better known American Wild Ales like Russian River's supplication and consecration.

Serving type: bottle

09-08-2013 00:23:10 | More by gcamparone
Photo of bulletrain76
bulletrain76

California

4.33/5  rDev +1.4%
look: 4 | smell: 4 | taste: 4.5 | feel: 4 | overall: 4.5

Draugh at the bruery. Red-brown with a big beige head. Oaky, tart, fruity aroma with some vinegar and burnt fig. The wine barrel influence really sets this appart from gypsey tart, and the sourness is about perfect, making it very drinkable but clean and dry in the finish while having a nIce malt character up front. A little mellow for a top-tier American sour ale, but the flavor complexity is there. Killer with food.

Serving type: on-tap

01-26-2010 06:26:21 | More by bulletrain76
Photo of litheum94
litheum94

California

4.47/5  rDev +4.7%
look: 4 | smell: 4.5 | taste: 4.5 | feel: 4.5 | overall: 4.5

Very dark brown with some red hues on the edges. Active, brown head that fizzles out quickly to a hazy cover.

Acetic sour aromas with an oaky earthiness. Hints of cedar. Some fruit esters, mostly cherry, but they're masked by the vinegar aromas. Very nice nose.

Tart and acetic at first, with flavors of vinegar and sour cherries. The sourness slowly fades, revealing a malt and toasted oak flavor. Leather and some pepper. Finish has a good dose of cab sauv flavors, with lots of tannins.

This is a great beer, one of the best of the styles I've ever had. The Bruery can sometimes be hit or miss, but when they get it right, it's damn close to perfect.

Serving type: bottle

01-25-2012 04:59:31 | More by litheum94
Photo of Beerzebub
Beerzebub

California

4.26/5  rDev -0.2%
look: 4 | smell: 4.5 | taste: 4.25 | feel: 4 | overall: 4.25

Bottle from the summer of 2012. Served a bit too cold in a very large wine glass.

Classic reddish brown color with a moderate amount of dark beige head, looks good in the glass and certainly looks like a Flanders Red.

Smells like malt, some mildly sharp vinegar, some oak, red wine, and brown sugar. It all comes together really well, especially as it warms a bit in the glass; greater than the sum of its parts.

Tastes excellent, drier and more sour than most Flanders Reds, excellent blend of lactic and sharp acetic tartness, with underlying dry malt and barrel flavors and an impression of salt and perhaps other minerals. Lingering salinity and tingly acidity.

Medium bodied, smooth creamy bubbles, highly drinkable.

Glad to finally try this slightly aged; it's drinking well.

Serving type: bottle

01-22-2014 07:05:57 | More by Beerzebub
Oude Tart from The Bruery
95 out of 100 based on 1,642 ratings.