Dismiss Notice
Save $5 when you subscribe to 12 issues / year of BeerAdvocate magazine and select auto-renew.

Subscribe now →
Dismiss Notice
Join Our Email List →

And we'll send you the latest updates and offers from BeerAdvocate, because knowing is half the battle.
Dismiss Notice

Pre-order your Respect Beer "Hipster" Hoodie today!

Plus: Free shipping (US only) on orders of $25 or more until 12/18/15. Just select "Free Shipping" at checkout.

Shop now →

Cuvée De Ranke - Brouwerij De Ranke

Not Rated.
Cuvée De RankeCuvée De Ranke

Educational use only; do not reuse.

121 Reviews
no score

(Send Samples)
Reviews: 121
Hads: 314
Avg: 4.17
pDev: 17.03%
Wants: 65
Gots: 48 | FT: 2
Brewed by:
Brouwerij De Ranke visit their website

Style | ABV
Belgian Pale Ale |  7.00% ABV

Availability: Rotating

Notes & Commercial Description:
Beer added by: emerge077 on 05-22-2008

From the brewery: "Cuvee is an ale of mixed origin like many Belgian breweries used to make. The production process is nearly the same as for the Kriek, the difference being that no cherries are added. It's a naturally acidified ale in which we try to reach the perfect balance between sweet and sour. This amber-coloured ale contains 7% vol. Alc. and can age really nice."
View: Beers (8) | Events
Beer: Reviews & Ratings
Sort by:  Recent | High | Low | Top Raters
first ← prev | 1-25 | 26-50 | 51-75  | nextlast
Reviews: 121 | Hads: 314
Photo of Sammy
3.93/5  rDev -5.8%
look: 4 | smell: 3.5 | taste: 4 | feel: 3.5 | overall: 4.5

Supremely enjoyable is you are OK with some sourness. Sourness, some lambic aroma, and transparent appearance, and some yeast and head. This was nicely malted. A tad less than median mouthfeel. Average mouthfeel. Not as dry as expected. Wonderful with lunch.

 258 characters

Photo of BEERchitect
4.26/5  rDev +2.2%
look: 4 | smell: 4.25 | taste: 4.25 | feel: 4.5 | overall: 4.25

And it's with the soul of gueuze and a shallow veil of Belgian pale ales that this beer shines with character, intrigue, and rusticity. Brewery De Rank continues to demonstrate what's great about being Belgian!

The beer's goldenrod hue settles into the glass, carrying with it the signature cloudiness that makes Belgian beer famous. A creamy white head caps the beer with a slightly pelicle-like pattern after it settles for just a bit. A swirl of the glass leaves intricate broken lace in its wake. Firm retention (especially for such an acidic beer) lasts the session with ease.

Floral and earthy, the beer's bouquet opens up with aromas of dried limes, leather, cork, weathered woods, sea air, dust, must, and crab apple. It's earthen tone is ripe with citrus peels, hay, and slight barnyard funk notes that gives rise to the notion that the beer exceeds pale ale and dips into sour ale character.

Evading much of the grain sweetness that accompany Belgian pale ales, there's just enough bready malt flavor to build the foundation on which the earth, fruit and spice extend upon. Dried limes, brine, aged and weathered oak, wine must, and sour white grapes become the prominent flavors while spicy white pepper, straw, and almost-vinegar flavors add richness and depth. It's delicious balance favors acidity over hop bitterness and captures the sense of taste in much the same way as dry, tannin-rich white wines.

Dry, dry, and more dry is the name of the game as the beer starts light on the palate and stays that way. Its zesty carbonation pulls the beer from the tongue and ushers in a quick finish that makes much of the flavors more appreciated in retrospect. Still, a light wood and powder sensation accompanies the finish and assists the high acidity and mild pithy bitterness as the beer comes to closure. An echo of dust, must, and earth extends beyond the highly refreshing and palate cleansing textures.

The beer fits the gueuze style much more than any pale ale delineation, and does so masterfully. It's a beautiful beer that's impeccably balanced, extremely clean, and earthy enough to appease the most staunch sour ale connoisseur.

 2,155 characters

Photo of Thorpe429
4.5/5  rDev +7.9%
look: 4 | smell: 4 | taste: 4.5 | feel: 5 | overall: 5

2008 vintage from the bottle at Churchkey. Served in a snifter and split with drabmuh and mdfb79. Big thanks to Matt for suggesting that we get this one.

Pours a golden-orange color with a half-finger white head and a bit of clingy lacing as it went down. The nose is fantastic. Quite a bit of earth with a nice amount of funk as well as really nice sour notes bringing up the rear. Some mild stone fruits throughout and carry over into the flavor.

Taste is quite exquisite with really nice earthy notes and funk plus peach, apricot, and some lightly-tart berries. Maybe some cloudberry presence. Feel is slightly puckering and creates a really nice finish alongside some dry funk. Really, really drinkable. What a great way to end the night; I'll surely be looking to find more of this in the future.

 803 characters

Photo of Phyl21ca
3.87/5  rDev -7.2%
look: 4.5 | smell: 3.75 | taste: 3.75 | feel: 4 | overall: 4

Bottle: Poured a clear bright deep golden color ale with a large pure white foamy head with good retention and some light lacing. Aroma of tart notes with light funky barnyard notes from the lambic. Taste is a complex mix between some sour and tart notes with light acidic notes, green apple notes, oak and some funky barnyard notes also perceptible. Body is about average with good carbonation. Well put together with great amount of complexity while retaining a good level of drinkability.

 491 characters

Photo of biboergosum
4/5  rDev -4.1%
look: 4 | smell: 4 | taste: 4 | feel: 4 | overall: 4

750ml bottle, paper-wrapped. Refermented, once again 'en bouteille', for 'taste evolution'. I love that, I just do.

This beer pours a hazy, medium muddled golden apricot hue, with two fingers of puffy, foamy off-white head, which leaves some crumbling sea-cliff lace around the glass as it duly recedes.

It smells of moderately tart lemon and cherry notes, pale grainy malt, mild, yeasty barn-like funk, soft hay, and a weak woodiness. The taste leads with the same tamely sour stone fruit acidity - mostly lemon - with a sturdy grainy, almost lager-like malt, some waning green yeastiness, subtle organic funk, a further, slightly sweet orchard fruitiness, and some equivocating dry oak notes. Nothing from the elevated ABV of which to speak at this juncture, apparently.

The carbonation is a tad frizzy, but seemingly only momentarily so, and otherwise mostly understated in its support, the body a generally medium weight, and fairly smooth in the face of the understated sour interlopers. It finishes off-dry, the sweetness of the malt engendering a fruitiness that is not all that (tart, that is), with the funk and yeast trailing off into the West.

A decently balanced sour Belgian ale, the blended 'fruity' lambic adding an extra oomph factor, without going all over the top. Weirdly drinkable, especially when your taste buds have gotten all pent up in anticipation, which I suppose is a good thing here. Now, on the flip side, the ABV has been upped, yet the inherent tartness is just capable enough at hiding it. Huh. It's always something, with these Low Country offerings.

 1,589 characters

Photo of emerge077
4.45/5  rDev +6.7%
look: 4.5 | smell: 4.5 | taste: 4.5 | feel: 4 | overall: 4.5

2009 notes: This seems more like a mellowed Gueuze than anything. Soft with low carbonation, plenty of barnyard funk with a lemon zest citrus edge. Strikingly similar to an aged Fantome. Seems misunderstood...

This is a hybrid style, label states "Belgian Sour Ale with Lambic added" (Blonde Ale from De Ranke blended with Lambic from Girardin). Since it's 7% and not 100% lambic, it didn't fit into the Gueuze/Lambic category, so "Belgian Pale Ale" is applied here, for lack of a better term (such as Belgian Wild Ale).

Fossilized amber tone, hazy with an initial swarm of ascending carbonation. Delicate lacing is left after an aggressive pour. Initially, the first pour was nearly still, with some larger bubbles forming. The upward carbonation formed a thin skim moments later, and retained itself well.

Subdued cellar aromas, honey, wet wood, and a pleasant cheesy note at room temperature. As it warms, the aroma really improves. Light floral notes, wood, and citrus.

Mellow citric lemony sourness, similar to a Gueuze. The Lambic edge is taken off from the Blonde Ale blend, which lets the subtle woody notes of the Girardin Lambic come through. Long aftertaste, sort of woody with wet citrus notes present too. Mild pucker, not as sour as other traditional Lambics, but sour-haters should stay away. The more I drank, the more I enjoyed it. This creative hybrid sour ale is definitely worth trying.

 1,413 characters

Photo of mikesgroove
4.15/5  rDev -0.5%
look: 4.5 | smell: 4.5 | taste: 4 | feel: 4 | overall: 4

near perfect pour here with a really big head of white on top of a golden amber colored body that really shows its just. lots of carbonation can be seen through the light haze and it really sets it apart quite nicely.

aroma is light, pleasant and full of esthers of all different varieties, pears, grasses, cloves, hints of light grains and spices, really just a light and pleasant mix in every way possible. crisp and clean finish with no hint of alcohol in here at all, this was simply exactly what i was looking for in a mid night treat.

overall a sublimly light and clean sessionable ale

 593 characters

Photo of ChainGangGuy
3.9/5  rDev -6.5%
look: 4 | smell: 4 | taste: 4 | feel: 3 | overall: 4

Appearance: Pours a clear, dark amber body with a thin ring of white bubbles.

Smell: Sour, funky aroma of retired malts, disgruntled lemons, uncorked and forgotten chardonnay, and wild, unstoppable yeast strains.

Taste: Mild base maltiness underneath a layer of funk. There's a flicker of sweetness, but otherwise it's a sour ride. Splash of citric lemon juice and white wine vinegar. Deteriorating, mold-coated wooden boards. Big pop of acidity. Pinch of nutmeg. Splash of Hildon mineral water. Dry, sourish finish.

Mouthfeel: Medium-thin body. Medium carbonation. Greasey texture.

Drinkability: Fairly good all around.

 624 characters

Photo of jlindros
4.23/5  rDev +1.4%
look: 4.25 | smell: 4.25 | taste: 4.25 | feel: 4 | overall: 4.25

Tap at Moeder Lambic.

Pours a nice pillowy creamy head of 1.5 fingers, fades slowly with layers, fairly hazy golden base dark orange top, thins to a golden color on the sides.

nose is pretty nice, tart fruit, light musty vinous funk, acidity, sour fruity mostly, a bit of banand too, light oak.

Taste is fairly sour, tart fruit like acidic bite but not too much, very light bready taste, light stone fruit, not super sour either. A bit juicy, and tart funky fruit. Finish is dry and flemmy, light cracker with a lingering sharp tartness and acidic taste.

Mouth is med bod, decent carb.

Overall pretty nice, different but good, tasty.

 638 characters

Photo of Slatetank
3.9/5  rDev -6.5%

I enjoyed this at Moeder lambic served in a tulip glass.

The color is light amber/golden with honey-like appearance with thick bone white head and fine bead with ringlets of lace left clinging. The smell has a woody and light sour aroma with mix of hoppy and light wild yeast elements with gentle citrus and sour apple odors. The feel is very good with tangy acidity with mild spice and very tart with gentle lactic tinge with subtle spiciness throughout and clean malt underlying a grapefruit pithy puckering quality with moderate carbonation.

The tasteis very tart like a juicy grapefruit mixed with malt and carbonated with zesty lightly hoppy flavor and dry woody character with some mild tannin and gentle flavor from the barrel. The taste is slightly sharp with mild toasted flavor which I suspect is part of the blend with finish acidic almost like biting into a grapefruit rind. Overall very good-nothing bad about this but a bit raw and bitter fresh, perhaps a little aging may help some of the sour flavors conflict for me but very decent overall.

 1,061 characters

Photo of smcolw
3.67/5  rDev -12%
look: 3.5 | smell: 4 | taste: 3.5 | feel: 4 | overall: 3.5

Moderate head but it recedes to a single layer of minute bubbles. There are sporadic spots of lace. The beer is an orange-gold color. Hazy.

Strong sour smell that is reminiscent of a lambic.

Lip puckering sourness--similar to sucking a lemon. The beginning has pale malt dryness. The full body is matched with a higher than expected level of carbonation. The aftertaste is a continuation of the tartness. I detect no hop.

 423 characters

Photo of mdfb79
4.12/5  rDev -1.2%
look: 4 | smell: 4.5 | taste: 4 | feel: 4 | overall: 4

Poured from a 750ml bottle into a tulip.

a - Pours a nice amber color with one inch of white head and light carbonation evident.

s - Smells of tart fruit, especially apples. Also light fruity malts. Some nice funk in the nose.

t - Tastes of tart apples, tart citrus, and fruity malts.

m - Medium body and moderate carbonation.

d - I really liked the smell of this beer. The taste was good but a step down. Would definitely try again.

 438 characters

Photo of drabmuh
4.72/5  rDev +13.2%
look: 4.5 | smell: 5 | taste: 4.5 | feel: 4.5 | overall: 5

Yum, beer poured into a snifter. Beer is yellow with a good head, soft, white, small bubbles that leaves some lacing on the glass. Carbonation moderate to high, looks good.

Aroma is acetic and lactic with hints of wood and leather. It is exactly what I hoped for.

Beer is light in body and effervescent in the mouth. It has a bright sourness in the midpalate and a mild, ever so mild, sweetness at the front of the mouth. The overall shape of the beer on the palate is nice. The funkiness is underplayed but complements that lactic sour late on the palate. The finish is clean and moderately dry but the beer does not dry out the mouth. I could drink a gallon of it. I love this beer.

 686 characters

Photo of Mora2000
4.2/5  rDev +0.7%
look: 4 | smell: 4 | taste: 4.5 | feel: 4 | overall: 4

Thanks to thirdeye11 for sharing this bottle at a recent tasting.

The beer pours a hazy yellow color with a white head. The aroma is tart lemons with some oak. The flavor is more of the same with a lot of tart lemons mixed with oak, some vanilla and Belgian yeast. Medium mouthfeel and medium carbonation. A very nice sour beer that I hope to try again.

 355 characters

Photo of smakawhat
4.63/5  rDev +11%
look: 5 | smell: 4.5 | taste: 4.5 | feel: 4.5 | overall: 5

Poured from the bottle into a tulip glass. Good till October 2015.

What an absolutely gorgeous color on this. Body hits with peach orange and red hues, shimmering, slightly opaque for unfiltered, the head is even slightly pink but manages to still always keep a puck for a bit, and a solid collar. I am in love with this color it's gorgeous. Some nice tight carbonation

Nose is real interesting. Nectarines, orange fruit, clean, wild yeast, chewy fruit body, faint lemon and banana, maybe some mango but nothing too sweet. Real nice here a big fruit basket, it's hard to wrap my head around this there's so much going on.

Palate upon taste is awash with what comes from the nose. Nectarines, tart/sour bent and wild yeast punch is controlled, makes an incredible fruit punch quality. Tight fizz on the palate but controlled, light bodied, ashen finish with the yeast producing some mild pepper. Some crispness with that light body.

Overall just incredible and real easy drinking. with such a fruit bowl quality, I am at a loss for words. This is a beer to just dive in and get happily lost.

 1,095 characters

Photo of Gueuzedude
4.7/5  rDev +12.7%
look: 4.5 | smell: 4.5 | taste: 5 | feel: 4.5 | overall: 4.5

Best By Date July 2012; Sampled July 2008
A vigorous pour produces a creamy, two-finger thick, light tan colored head. The beer is a hazy plum color that shows a murky, orange-tinged amber color when held up to the light. The aroma is quite tart smelling with a ample backdrop of fruit notes. A closer inspection yields a nice funkiness to this brew's nose as well. Aromas of lactic acid, tamarind, sour plums, ripe pears, butyric acid, old sweaty leather, musty earth and a fruity ripe cheese note are each noticeable. A touch of soft, toasty, crushed malt is noticeable just a bit towards the finis of the aroma. While at first quite sour smelling a rich, complex fruitiness really starts to come to the for after a short while. This has a very nice nose to it, one which is complex and enjoyable.

Tart tasting, though not as much as many a hard Lambic. The ample fruitiness is still quite noticeable in the flavor with notes of ripe plums, pear, some dark grape flavors, . The finish is distinct and it took me a second to figure out what was going on; I think that it is a substantial bitterness that is noticeable, though not strong; it threw me off a bit because your typical sour beer, much less Lambic has a very reduced hop character. The bitterness in the finish is lightly astringent and almost has an herbal quality to it. In the finish some tannins and the sourness combine to create a sensation a bit like black tea does with a tannic, teeth coating astringency that is only light present in this beer. I really like how the lactic sourness couples with the fruit character. The funk, especially the Brettanomyces derived character is much reduced in the flavor at first, but as it warms up a bit it becomes more noticeable. Sweaty horse blanket notes add a light component, there is a slight mustiness and a bit of barnyard funk.

After the second pour a touch of funky, ripe, farmhouse cheese aromatics join the other, more noticeable notes in the aroma. Uriatic like notes of "cat-piss" become a bit more accentuated as it forms a back-drop to some of the other aromatic notes. The second pour also makes me realize that there is a soft sweetness still in this beer; it is not much, but I think it is what really accentuates the interesting fruitiness that this beer has.

I wonder what the base beer for this is? There seems to be a fair amount of residual hop character, including a herbal hop flavor and it make me wonder if the XX Bitter was included somewhere in here. Just a fantastic beer, it is very sour and funky, but not really "hard" and it is significantly different from the typical sour Belgian varieties of Lambic or Flemish Sour. It doesn't have the malt depth of the latter, nor is it quite as funky/sour or pale (in malt character and fruitiness) as the former. A singular beer that makes me think of some of the new world sours, but it has a refined quality to it (perhaps it is the lack of overt / aggressive oak) that many of the American sours don't quite reach. I could drink a ton of this and actually wish I had more than this one bottle so I could age a couple (that 2012 best by date seems to be calling to me).

 3,157 characters

Photo of dcmchew
4.33/5  rDev +3.8%
look: 4.5 | smell: 4.5 | taste: 4.25 | feel: 4.25 | overall: 4.25

0.75 paper wrapped bottle. 70% sour, 30% lambic. Best before 07/12/18.
Pours a bit hazy orange, small white head kept alive for a while by bubbles, leaving just a thin sticky lacing.
Smell is divided equally between the two styles used: lots of sour grapes, vinegar, but also the lambic barnyard funk. Light sour cherries, hay, lemon, wood, green apple and a faint sugary note that tells me this won't be exclusively sour. A lot going on here.
It starts really sour, not only vinegar but packing the astringency and acidity of lemon juice, white grapes, green apple, a touch of slightly sweet pear, unripe cherry plum and lots of green fruit peel. Brett yeasts seem to take over, big barnyard notes with green hay, floorboard, oak barrel stave, grass, plus lots of green funky notes towards the end. Finish is quite bitter and very dry. Almost none of the bit of sweetness detected in the smell.
Medium body, helpful carbonation, very refreshing. Aftertaste resembles that of dry red wine that's been barrel aged for a while.
It hits all the right spots perfectly, but doesn't really wow. Still very very good.

 1,110 characters

Photo of Halcyondays
4.3/5  rDev +3.1%
look: 4 | smell: 4 | taste: 4.5 | feel: 5 | overall: 4

750 mL bottle,

A: Pours a hazy yellow with a medium white head, good lace and solid retention.

S: Definite horse blanket notes, musty oranges, grassy hops.

T: Lactic acid, Brett funk, lots of lemon and orange, acidic citrus. Yellow apple and some pear add a bit from the BPA, but the lambic dominates this brew.

M: Tart, medium-bodied, medium acidity, great Brettified aftertaste.

D: A fantastic beer from De Ranke, their best in my opinion, the lambic is a great addition, just a beautiful tasty beer.

 507 characters

Photo of BlackHaddock
3.94/5  rDev -5.5%
look: 3 | smell: 4 | taste: 4 | feel: 4 | overall: 4

The regular paper covered green 0.75cl bottle, reviewed when fairly young (drank Sep 2011, Best before date of Jan 2015).

Poured slowly into three different glasses, the last one getting some of the sediment within it.

Two glasses of clear light amber sat in front of me, the third being a bit darker and not so clear to the eye: none had much of a head, I blame the slow pour and young age of the brew.

The smell and taste were as follows: Yeasty cooking apples with an side dish of semi-acidic pears which have began to rot because of over ripeness.

I really liked it, refreshing and different, a new favourite of mine.

 625 characters

Photo of Stinkypuss
4.17/5  rDev 0%
look: 3.5 | smell: 4 | taste: 4.5 | feel: 4 | overall: 4

De Ranke "Cuvee De Ranke"

25 oz bomber. Pours a hazed dark straw color, fizzy head and little lace. In the aroma, strong sour and funky hay aromas. In the taste, lemon rind, acidic bite, rounding out with a small bitterness. Tart, funky, sour, and a portion of wheat malt. Mouthfeel is light to medium bodied, lingering bitterness and tartness. Overall, a nice, deceptively strong sour beer from Belgium. Whats not to like?

 424 characters

Photo of weeare138
4.12/5  rDev -1.2%
look: 4 | smell: 4.5 | taste: 4 | feel: 4 | overall: 4

Thanks to egajdzis for sharing this...
Appears a semi-transparent gold with a small, white head that slowly fades into a small collar.
Smell is of funky cranberries, bubblegum, lemon juice, and a pinch of vinegar.
Taste is of the mentioned aromas with even another layer of cherries coming through.
Mouthfeel is medium bodied, tart yet balanced, with cherries smacking the tastebuds on the way down.

 399 characters

Photo of JohnGalt1
4.05/5  rDev -2.9%
look: 4 | smell: 4 | taste: 4.5 | feel: 3.5 | overall: 3.5

750 picked up at the Boise COOP yesterday... shared with Inflatablechair ... pours a hazed orange with a white head that quickly collapses into a pretty firm cap.

nose shows light funk and lemon.. more than expected sweetness almost seems "sweet and sour".

Flavor has more pronounced funk.. sorta musty basement or composting leaves mixed in with lemon zest and a bit too much residual sugars.. apple and pear esters combine with the lemon to make this pretty fruity an delightfully funky... Thankfully finishes on the drier side of the spectrum.

Lite/medium body with only a lite/medium carbonation.... it seems to me, the body could be dialed back a bit and the carbonation up a full notch.

Glad I finally got to try this and we have a small supply locally available.... I need to move quickly to grab some and cellar for a long while.


 858 characters

Photo of AlexFields
3.62/5  rDev -13.2%
look: 3.5 | smell: 4 | taste: 3.5 | feel: 3.5 | overall: 3.5

Pours a light orange color with a nice frothy head, looks a lot like a gueuze.

Smells extremely funky and quite sour. Getting lots of fruit mixed in too--orange and grape and lemon. This smells pretty damn good.

Taste is similar--still very funky and even more sour than I expected. Very acidic, this one definitely made me pucker up. The fruit flavors are back too, but this time they're accompanied by an odd musty dryness that comes at the end of each sip and lasts into the aftertaste. The flavors here are very complex and mostly very good, but there's also something a little off that makes it hard to drink more than like a glass of this (I had three but it was hard to finish the last one). I'm still tempted to give this one an even higher rating though. I wanna have it again.


 796 characters

Photo of aasher
4.3/5  rDev +3.1%
look: 4 | smell: 4 | taste: 4.5 | feel: 4 | overall: 4.5

Some beers have the perfect description to pull you in. This is one of them. It poured a very nice orange in color with moderate turbidity and a half finger off white head. It almost smells like a gueuze yet also has a light sweetness to it. All I can really get from it is peaches, apricots, and fruit juice. It's very appealing on the nose. The flavors are surprisingly VERY sour and tart. I expected it to be sour, just not this much. It's very impressive. It is straight fermented sour peaches and apricots. It has a dry and almost bitter finish which is the only detractor but it drinks really well. To me, this drinks like a medium bodied gueuze with more carbonation than average. I really enjoyed this one, it's a very nice beer.

 737 characters

Photo of corby112
4.25/5  rDev +1.9%
look: 4 | smell: 4 | taste: 4.5 | feel: 4.5 | overall: 4

From notes:

Pours a dark golden amber/orange color with a thin white head that settles into a thin lasting ring. Sporadic spots of lacing left behind.

Slightly funky aroma with earthy, musty oak and horseblanket along with vinous fruit notes and subtle vinegar. Hints of sweet apple and pear balance out the funky/tart character in the nose.

Medium bodied with a great balance of sweet, estery light fruit and tart, puckering sourness. Funky with lots of musty oak and vinegar flavor as well as some slight lacto mid-palate but this is balanced out by vinous, sweet fruit notes, especially apple, grape and pear. The combination of sweet fruit notes and vinegary sour/tartness results in a sweet, mouth puckering, tart finish that isn't abrasive or acidic. Recommended.

 772 characters

first ← prev | 1-25 | 26-50 | 51-75  | nextlast
Cuvée De Ranke from Brouwerij De Ranke
92 out of 100 based on 121 ratings.