1. The wait is over! Download the BeerAdvocate app on iTunes or Google Play now.
  2. Get 12 issues / year of BeerAdvocate magazine for only $9.99!

Supplication - Russian River Brewing Company

Not Rated.
SupplicationSupplication

Displayed for educational use only; do not reuse.
BA SCORE
100
world-class

4,590 Ratings
THE BROS
100
world-class

(view ratings)
Ratings: 4,590
Reviews: 1,309
rAvg: 4.57
pDev: 8.97%
Wants: 2,106
Gots: 1,384 | FT: 91
Brewed by:
Russian River Brewing Company visit their website
California, United States

Style | ABV
American Wild Ale |  7.00% ABV

Availability: Rotating

Notes/Commercial Description:
Brown Ale aged in used Pinot Noir barrels from local Sonoma County wineries. It is aged for about 12 months with sour cherries, brettanomyces, lactobacillus, and pediococcus added to each barrel. Flavors from the cherries, Pinot Noir and oak balance each other nicely with a little funk from the brett.

(Beer added by: BeerAdvocate on 02-25-2005)
Beer: Ratings & Reviews
Sort by:  Usefulness | Recent | High | Low | Top Raters | Read the Alström Bros Beer Reviews and Beer Ratings of Supplication Alström Bros
Ratings: 4,590 | Reviews: 1,309 | Display Reviews Only:
Photo of snaotheus
snaotheus

Washington

4.22/5  rDev -7.7%

Little corked bottle poured into a St. Bernardus glass

A little cloudy, orangey-brown, very little head, medium active carbonation. Smell is tart and pleasant, a little unripe orange or maybe grapefruit juice, cherry blossom.

Taste is very tart with a dry chalky twist (which is better than it sounds). Makes me think a little bit of the big white chalky chewable vitamin C pills that my parents used to have (and which I secretly loved). Tartness is strong enough for a big mouthful to twinge my jaws.

Mouthfeel is dry, light, not sticky at all. A little effervescent. I couldn't session any beer this tart, but it's a pleasant, tasty beer.

12-24-2010 01:53:33 | More by snaotheus
Photo of greenmonstah
greenmonstah

New Hampshire

4.43/5  rDev -3.1%

Tasting on 12/16 with GarrettMD. Batch 04x5, 375 mL bottle into DFH snifter.

A - Pours a clear ruby-ish copper with a half finger of off white head. Looks nice.

S - This is not a smell I know. Is this the legendary "Brett funk"? It is a bit sweet, a bit sour, and yeasty. Sour black cherries and perhaps some sour apple.

T - Extremely sour on the first sip, you get used to it as you drink. Definitely earns the title of Sour Ale. Sour apple and sour cherries. I am instantly reminded of the dry acidity of pinor noit. This is so so delicious.

M - Medium to light body with very active carbonation. A bit cloying finish.

D - Despite the sourness I find it very easy to drink. Tart and sweet and an absolute joy and privilege to drink.

12-23-2010 23:16:46 | More by greenmonstah
Photo of JamnesCameron
JamnesCameron

Illinois

3.9/5  rDev -14.7%

Poured into a MJ tasting glass.

Pours a ruby hue with orange highlights around the edges of the glass. About a finger of head that drops rather quickly. But a very effervescent brew.

Aromas of lactic sourness, oakiness, cherry stones, vinegar, and cherries.

First sip is of a slightly puckering sourness. A bit of a carbonic bite. Sour cherry juice, untoasted oak. Vinegar and lactic sourness. And cherry pits.

Mouthfeel is thin, tart, and a drying puckerness.

Drinkability is fairly good. A "classic" american wild brew. Missing some intangibles from a belgian sour, lack of "earthiness." Overall good, but nothing to get too excited about. Not getting the hype.

12-22-2010 00:29:43 | More by JamnesCameron
Photo of Kadonny
Kadonny

Pennsylvania

4.28/5  rDev -6.3%

Poured from a corked 375ml bottle into a snifter glass.

A: A darker golden orange color with a prickly two finger white head. No glass lacing to speak of.

S: Wow, sour and tartness jump with smells of fruit, cherry, apple and some yeastiness.

T: Sour? Absolutely, just plain mouth puckering from the second it hits your lips. Flavors of dark fruit, cherry, some apple, pear with some very slight (I do mean slight) sweetness. Some yeastiness but no funk. Finish remains sour and puckering that just lasts seemingly forever. So this has brett in it? I'm not getting any classic brett flavors.

M: Tart, puckering, full, coating.

D: Medium, it was the perfect serving size but more might not have been better.

Overall this is one sour beer (like I expected anything less), but a great beer at that. RR is amazing with their sours as they are just so damn good. I might like Consecration better, but this is one great beer too.

12-20-2010 13:52:04 | More by Kadonny
Photo of GarrettMD
GarrettMD

New York

4.43/5  rDev -3.1%

A - A hazy ruby/copper hue with thin white head. Head fades to a thin lacing of bubbles. Seems to be hazy due to carbonation.

S - I can safely say I have never smelled that aroma before in my life (this is the first sour I have ever had). I will assume the brett is what I smell. Sweet smelling but I can't place any aroma at all...

T - Wow. Wow. Sour. Lots of sour apples. Dark cherry flavor as well. Complex, but once again I can't place any of the flavors as I have never had anything like it before.

M - Medium body, lots of carbonation. Sour all the way through with a nice crisp finish.

D - Extremely drinkable. ABV doesnt show at all, this might as well not have any alcohol as far as I'm concerned. The sourness isn't too overpowering either. I had never had a sour, so I expected this to force my to pucker up the entire taste, not the case.

Batch 04x5

12-16-2010 23:27:53 | More by GarrettMD
Photo of AndrewNations
AndrewNations

Louisiana

4.38/5  rDev -4.2%

Poured from a corked and caged 375ml.

Batch 005X5

A: Ports a reddish amber with little clarity. The head is a think white layer that has nice lacing and somehow stays with throughout the tasting.

S: Sour Cherry, lime, very little oak if any.

T: The sour cherries and overall tart is great. The sourness hits the front of my pallet aggressively but fades away allowing for more of the subtle notes to shine.
The brett/lacto/pedio and apparent but man does this finish so clean. If it were easy I suspect all American Wilds would taste this good.

M: Not to thick. The carbonation here is perfect for the style.

D: Perfect ! I could drink much more than RR would suggest...

12-15-2010 03:36:51 | More by AndrewNations
Photo of afksports
afksports

New York

4.28/5  rDev -6.3%

Enjoying this the evening before my first brewery only release at Troegs for Splinter Black. From a batch 5 bottle. Shared with the woman, who gives the dreaded beerface to it (a day after giving La Folie two thumbs up!).

Supplication is a wildy tasty sour. Great lacing, half finger of head that dissipates but spots the glass and retains well. The aroma is strong of cherries and puckering tartness. Taste follows the nose and is dark cherries that pucker but aren't overwhelmed by malts. The malts are present too, just dominated by the sourness.

For all the sour, it's still highly drinkable. After the medium body, nicely carbonated brew goes through it leaves you puckering for more. At 7.00%, that's not hard. Only problem is the price.

12-15-2010 03:01:25 | More by afksports
Photo of jdense
jdense

Oregon

4.22/5  rDev -7.7%

25 cl pour into Delirium Tremens mini-snifter at Belmont Station PDX 12.1.2010 $5.

3/4 finger brown head, quick dissipation resulting in thin broken layer on top of clear reddish brown body, small trail of very small bubbles rising from bottom of glass. Nose is a bit fruity, some oakiness, horse blanket funk, not picking up a lot of hop aromatics. Taste features a bit of cherry sweetness upfront, a bit more tart than sour, funky backend, musty, some floral hops but not much bitterness, not mouth puckering sour. Mouthfeel just on the light side of medium, pretty sticky. Drinkability is good for style but dont' want to do multiple glasses re palate fatigue. Complex and certainly recommended for fans of the style.

12-12-2010 18:03:57 | More by jdense
Photo of Urbancaver
Urbancaver

Ohio

3.93/5  rDev -14%

Batch 5, Barrel 3
A- orange/golden with great head that sticks around for quite a while
S- very very sour... not sure what else to say
T- sour sweet tarts with a hint of malt...
M- smooth, well carbonated
D- Sharp and bitter making it tough to do more than sip a bit. Definitely couldn't drink a whole bottle

12-12-2010 16:32:19 | More by Urbancaver
Photo of BarrytheBear
BarrytheBear

Wisconsin

4/5  rDev -12.5%

Batch 005x 2 split with milwaukeeclassic and batting lead off during tonight's impending monster snowstorm

Pours ruddy copper with a thin white collar

Tart cherry, vinegar, and heavy oak on the nose

Much livelier in taste than smell. Tart cherries at the get go muted by funk and vinegar across the middle. Highly acidic and hugely tannic on the back. Barrel is all over this beer. Perhaps memory is faulty, but I've had this beer a handful of times including on tap at the brewery and this just doesn't seem the same: less sour and more vinegar and oak.

Another conundrum lies in the mouthfeel. A lively pop from the cork portended a high level of carbonation. Once poured and allowed to settle, the promise isn't quite kept. Oddly it seems just a bit off.

Not to blaspheme, and I'm sure this isn't a bad bottle, but this just didn't deliver on the promise of what I know to be a good beer. A mild disappointment.

12-12-2010 01:48:40 | More by BarrytheBear
Photo of GbVDave
GbVDave

Illinois

4.6/5  rDev +0.7%

Poured from a corked and caged 375ml bottle into a St. Bernardus goblet. Thanks to hippityhops85 for this from our recent trade!

Batch 005X3

A: After the cork loudly popped out of the bottle it poured a reddish-amber color. Fanning out on top was a light khaki colored, one finger layer of foam that retained for ages. Carbonation was lively and lots of lace was left stuck in the glass.

S: Tart berry, lemon, damp oak, sour cherry, and the slightest hint of dry/roasty malt.

T: Great flavors of tart berry/sour cherry, oak, and hints of tangy citrus.

M: Tangy and dry with a bit of acidic vinegar. Not quite pucker inducing. Awesome.

D: Consider me impressed. I would consider this a sessionable sour. Totally excellent!

12-12-2010 01:20:37 | More by GbVDave
Photo of thagr81us
thagr81us

South Carolina

4.85/5  rDev +6.1%

GRADING IS BASED ON THIS ONE!: Batch 04X2. Massive thanks goes out to dyan for this bottle in a long past trade! Served from bottle into a Duvel tulip. Poured a massively hazy red-orange with a three finger off-white head that subsided to one finger slowly. Maintained excellent lacing throughout the glass. The aroma was comprised of sweet malt, sour, tart, and a hint of dark fruit upon warming up. The flavor was of sweet malt, excellent sour, nice tart, dark fruit, hint of funk, and a floral note on the followthrough. It had a medium feel on the palate with high carbonation. Overall this brew is excellent. I must have more of this one!!! Definitely has an excellent aroma, but the flavor is other-worldly. I was really surprised how the floral note on the followthrough seems to cleanse you palate to prepare it for your next sip. Just purely amazing. This is probably my favorite Wild Ale that I have consumed to date without a doubt. Hope I can find something better in the future, but this one is going to be hard to top!

Batch 003! Massive thanks goes out to gcurlow for hooking this one up for beeruser and I to tick! Served from bottle into a Sweetwater snifter. Poured bright orange with a half finger off-white head that subsided to a minimal amount slowly. Maintained nice lacing throughout the glass. The aroma was comprised of sweet malt, sour, wood, fruit, and funk. The flavor was of sweet malt, sour, funk, wood, tart, and fruit. It had a light feel on the palate with medium-high carbonation. Overall this was a fairly great brew still. I have been lucky to try this one multiple times and have never been disappointed. While this one did carry a slightly different flavor and aroma there really wasn't a huge difference between the two batches I've reviewed. However, the carbonation seemed to have dropped off a little bit on this one as it was a little older. Still definitely one of my favorite AWAs out there today. 4.5 appearance/4.5 aroma/4.5 tate/4 mouthfeel/4.5 overall

12-08-2010 14:08:57 | More by thagr81us
Photo of Estocker
Estocker

California

4.75/5  rDev +3.9%

WOW

I have had the opportunity to try this on tap and in the bottle quite a few times and it never ceases to amaze me every single time I have it.

Pours a deep brown with red highlights. Looks like rotten cherry juice, in the best way.

Smells fantastic. Cherries, lots of tart acidity in the nose, a little bit of vinegar but it is subdued. There's a little bit of funk to it as well.

Taste is even better, no, MUCH better than the nose. This is possibly one of the most complex beers I've ever had, but I can't really tell... I'm too busy enjoying how amazing it tastes to care about complexity. Cherries. Tart, TART, yummy, sour, delicious cherries but not too fruity. Some of the wine taste comes in as well. If you're a wine lover, then you'll enjoy this. It's reminiscent of Rodenbach Grand Cru if you're looking for something to compare it to if you've never had it, but it is SO MUCH better. I get lost drinking this beer, and I can't get enough of it.

I'm literally thinking about moving out to Santa Rosa just so I can go to the Russian River brewpub and drink this every day.

12-08-2010 06:16:13 | More by Estocker
Photo of jpmclaug
jpmclaug

South Carolina

4.18/5  rDev -8.5%

Poured from a 375mL bottle into my Duchesse goblet. Got one of these from mikesgroove and one from domtronzero. Thanks guys! This is a review of 004 x 02

A- Hazy orang/red body with a decent sized off white head resting on top.

S - Smell's like this one will be pretty sour. Also picking up hints of cherry. Oak notes are certainly present as well.

T - More funky and less tart than I was expecting. Really clean finish. Some cherry notes but not too much. Plenty of barrel flavor. Earthy notes are also in play

M - medium body with a good amount of carbonation.

D - A nice sour indeed. Plenty of funk and other good wild notes. Not as sour as I would have liked but I've found that to be the case with most RR sours. I like this one better than Consecration and Temptation bt not as much as some other sours out there. I would certainly drink/buy this one again if I had the chance but wouldn't go too crazy trying to get it.

12-08-2010 02:24:12 | More by jpmclaug
Photo of Jemonster
Jemonster

California

4.53/5  rDev -0.9%

A: Beautiful cloudy red orange color with off-white head. Micro bubble carbonation. When the glass is tilted, the bubbles cling to the side and shimmer on the way back to the liquid. The head is thin but lasts until the end.

S: Sour, berrylike smell. Oak and sharp yeast.

T: Very tart candy sourness from the start. Some woody notes, fruit, light alcohol, and not much else. This beer is much more simple than I thought it would be from everyone elses description, but it is still very good. To me, it does taste like something is missing...

M: Crisp crisp crisp. Clean and tingly and bubbly.

D: Very high. I would drink this by the pitcher if it were possible. A really great beer. I love sours, and this one is no exception. However, I don't think it is the sour that all others should be judged by.

12-06-2010 21:26:19 | More by Jemonster
Photo of Slatetank
Slatetank

Pennsylvania

4.72/5  rDev +3.3%

I had this on tap at TJ's Restaurant and Drinkery's 7th Anniversary event.

Lightly hazed cherry juice color w/ tiny bead ring for head - not expected to have much really, though. The lace clings in spots and the color is rosy w/ clarity that is transclucent as expected for the style. The smell has plenty of sweet scents yet a good dose of tart cherry in there too, the aroma gives a mild compliment of lemony sour with mild sweet cherry-like tinges from the wild yeast. The feel is vibrant, light dry and tangy with moderate acidity. the tartness is slight, not overly sour with moderately high carbonation and gentle berry juiciness.

The flavor is so concentrated with fresh juiced tart cherry and light sweet flavors w/ dry tannic fruit skin notes. The mild pie-like cherry flavor is sweet and acidic at the same time giving a mildly astringent effect on the palate w/ a bit of bitterness from the hops but only slight and the oak gives a mild olive like bitter oily element to the fruity sour in the flavor. There is mild hop spice to accent all the oak and berry complexity. This is a fantastic wild ale, so surpremely drinkable which as Chris Lively said, Vinnie attempted a flavor akin to aged Orval, and he definitely achieved that. The flavor and drinkabililty go above and beyond. I was sad when I noticed it kicked in only a couple hours - so much cherry goodness.

12-06-2010 17:14:30 | More by Slatetank
Photo of nlmartin
nlmartin

Ohio

4.78/5  rDev +4.6%

This beer came my way as an extra from Sholand. Thanks man this is a great beer. The beer was served chilled in a wide mouthed goblet.

Appearance: The body of the beer is ruby coloration. The head is short lived white coloration. A thin rim of white rings the rim of my glass. Webbing of lacing marks the beers passage.

Smell: I hesitate to call any wild ales aroma clean. Musty cellar aroma combine with tart semi sweet cherries grapes and oaken barrel.

Taste: The flavor of the beer is loaded with tart cherries. Nice bracing bret sourness. Again I hesitate to call it a clean flavor but I love the brief sweetness of cherries and then the tartness nice oak tones noted to flavor.

Mouthfeel / Drinkability: The sourness and the tartness are well balanced. The body is light and very refreshing. A very drinkable sour beer. The beer disappeared from my glass way too fast. This beer is an American classic.

12-06-2010 15:36:06 | More by nlmartin
Photo of PBoegel
PBoegel

New York

4.4/5  rDev -3.7%

From my notes on corked and caged 500 ML bottle, poured into a Brooklyn tulip snifter.

Beer pours with a wonderful effervescence a ruby and amber body with light tan to cream colored billowy head.

Aromas are sour cherry, wood chips, concord grapes and touches of caramel. Nice blend of sweet and sour, very balanced, no hops to speak of.

Flavor is just tremendous, wood, dark skin grapes, dried cherries, raspberry and a really knockout souring touch in the middle to finish. The mid range sweetness and caramel touch of the beer blends perfectly with the tart sour notes.

Mouthfeel is perfect, well carbonated providing a prickly accentuation of the sweet and tart notes. Light bodied and refreshing in its tartness.

Extremely drinkable delicious sour ale.

12-05-2010 15:32:44 | More by PBoegel
Photo of Chincino
Chincino

Massachusetts

4.68/5  rDev +2.4%

I had this beer on-tap at the Russian River Brewing Company in Santa Rosa, CA in August 2010. It was part of a sampler of all the beers that they had on-tap that day. I also had this beer on-tap in a regular sized pint.

The beer poured to be an amber color and it had fairly strong aroma of cherries. The taste was slightly sweet and was light in body. This beer was extraordinary and was easy to drink. I loved this beer and I would highly recommend it.

12-05-2010 13:39:16 | More by Chincino
Photo of krisandajt
krisandajt

Pennsylvania

4.63/5  rDev +1.3%

After spending weeks working on my final college paper, I'm finally finished. Figured I'd celebrate a bit with a great beer.

Appearance: Poured from the bottle, this beer is a cloudy, dirty apple cider color. There's hardly any head, only a thin ring where the beer meets the glass.

Smell: Sweet cherries with some sour thrown in. There's also a mild oakiness to it that really rounds everything out nicely. Really great smelling beer.

Taste: Sour and tart. The cherries which were really strong in the nose sort of take a backseat to the funk and the oak. Everything just melds together so well, such a great tasting beer.

Mouthfeel: Carbonation is perfect, body is light and refreshing. Really nailed it here.

Drinkability: An absolutely top notch beer. Each time I've had this beer I get more and more impressed with it. I highly recommend this beer to anybody that can get their hands on it.

12-05-2010 02:19:36 | More by krisandajt
Photo of unclejimbay
unclejimbay

Florida

4.5/5  rDev -1.5%

Supplication (noun): humble prayer, entreaty or petition.

Description from the website...
www.russianriverbrewing.com
Supplication: Brown Ale aged in French oak Pinot Noir barrels with three strains of Brettanomyces, Lactobacillus, Pediococcus and sour cherries .
7.0%ABV / 1.064 O.G / 27 BUs

Thanks to troywhittaker for sharing one of these with me, a pleasant surprise. I love brown ales, I love Pinot Noir, but I am a newb to this sour hype...

I appreciatte the tartness without being over done. White head on a golden/amber body. Aromas of cherry and wood. Complex taste of wine, cherry and mild tarness. Balanced by malt base less sour than I expected. A unique sipper for sure.

I was not able to write detailed notes on this one, but I plan to next time I get the opportunity to sample this one again. I am not scared of the sour just yet.

12-03-2010 22:50:50 | More by unclejimbay
Photo of KAP1356
KAP1356

Pennsylvania

4.65/5  rDev +1.8%

Last review from notes and then I think I'm all caught up. Consumed 5/28/2010 at The Broad Axe Tavern (couldn't believe they had this in the bar. Also couldn't believe the price). 375 ml. bottle marked Batch 04x2. Unfortunately the bartender must not have known anything about this beer as she presented it in a pint glass. Hoping it doesn't detract from the experience...

A - Slightly amber-yellow color with a fluffy creamy colored head that fades quite quickly leaving very little lacing. Despite the pint glass, it looks very inticing.

S - Wow. Woody, oak, and brett right up front. Vinous as well (as hoped) as the pinot noir deffinitely comes out as does the cherris. Really smells quite fantastic.

T - Extremely well balanced combination of woody oak, cherries, brett and lacto. Very bright and fruity wuth the cherries being oh so tasty. Everything seems to be working so well together. The sourness actually stays with you throughout the entire bottle which I found very nice.

M - Very carbonated and it works quite well. Medium bodied and actually quite silky despite the carbonation. Lactic acid bite at times in the throat, but nothing that detracts from the beer.

D - Very drinkable beer, especially for a sour. Everything is so well balanced that it makes it easy to drink the whole way through. Really can't wait to stock up on a few bottles of this baby.

12-03-2010 06:23:16 | More by KAP1356
Photo of cbarrett4
cbarrett4

Oregon

4.7/5  rDev +2.8%

Poured from tap at Belmont Station into snifter ~ comparison tasting with Consecration, Supplication, and Temptation.

Appearance is good, about average for a fruit enhanced sour. Lacks a head, but this is typical of barrel matured sours.

Nose is bright and inviting with a sour cherry and citrus notes framing the sour yeast core. Lovely sour flavor without being too astringent. Lots of cherry and berry flavors expand on the palate.

Medium bodied with a nice balance of alcohol, texture, and tannins. Long, smooth finish. Very enjoyable!

12-02-2010 20:12:24 | More by cbarrett4
Photo of ADZA
ADZA

Australia

4.45/5  rDev -2.6%

This brew pours a light burnt amber hue with beautiful carbonation that leaves behind a frothy two finger head with nice sporadic lacing,the smell is a combination of sour,sour cherries,red grapes,sour funk and oak,it has a medium bodied mouthfeel which is nicely carbonated and has flavours of sour red grapes first up followed by red berries,plums and finishes off with a dry sour cherry,wood,oak sour red apple bitterness which is quite dry and mouthpuckering and for me i could drink it all night if only i had more than the one bottle and overall the only thing ive got to say is that Russian River's brews should be available to our shores all the time its such a shame that this fine brewery cannot do what Rogue does and let us sample these exciting fine brews constantly other than that i really like this brew and could not knock it cheers.

11-30-2010 12:59:41 | More by ADZA
Photo of hawks10
hawks10

Illinois

4.33/5  rDev -5.3%

375ml corked & caged bottle - Batch 005x4 - Poured into my Russian River stemware...

Pours a slightly hazy burnt orange color, somewhat pale with a ruby red tiny. When held to the light however, this beer is beautiful, deep ruby red with some orange mixed in, a solid stream of little bubbles rises from the bottom. Two fingers of very soft, beige head forms and slowly recedes, leaving a thick cap of haze and some nice lacing behind...

Loads of super fresh, powerful tart cherries fill the nose. The fruit aspect of this beer is intense and wonderful. A nice lactic sourness is evident and is tempered a bit by a good dose of funk/barnyard aromas and oak. Tartness does take a backseat to the funk after a few whiffs, wonderfully complex and very enticing smell...

Beer begins slightly tart with loads of funk in the finish. Dry and oaky, the barrels are much more evident in flavor than in aroma. Acidic and slightly fruity, was expecting a more intense dose of cherries given their abundance in the nose, but they kind of take a supporting role here. The earthy, barnyard/funk flavors, combined with a strong oak presence kind of subdue the cherry/fruit aspect of the taste. The finish is a strange combination of dry, dusty and musty basement with a biting acidity...

Medium bodied with a good amount of carbonation, yet the beer is silky. The tartness of the beer isn't quite to the puckering level, but the high acidity does start to eat at your palette. Finishes dry and dusty with a lingering acidity...

I really enjoy this beer. Nice and tart, but not overwhelmingly so. Wonderful complex aromas and flavors combine to make a highly drinkable beer that never gets old. The acidity is a little on the high side, but with sours, it's hard to complain about that. This may be my favorite American Wild Ale, as a Belgian Lambic fan, I'm usually let down by American Wilds, not the case here...

11-30-2010 01:55:31 | More by hawks10
Supplication from Russian River Brewing Company
100 out of 100 based on 4,590 ratings.