Dismiss Notice
We're celebrating 10 years of BeerAdvocate magazine with $10 print subscriptions for US residents.

Subscribe now!

Founders Imperial Stout | Founders Brewing Company

Log in or Sign up to start rating.
BA SCORE
96
world-class
1,845 Reviews
THE BROS
-
no score
Send samples
Founders Imperial StoutFounders Imperial Stout
BEER INFO

Brewed by:
Founders Brewing Company
Michigan, United States
foundersbrewing.com

Style: Russian Imperial Stout

Alcohol by volume (ABV): 10.50%

Availability: Winter

Notes / Commercial Description:
75 IBU

Added by mjohn27603 on 01-13-2003

BEER STATS
Reviews:
1,845
Ratings:
7,712
Avg:
4.34
pDev:
8.53%
 
 
Wants:
739
Gots:
2,415
For Trade:
150
User Reviews
Sort by:  Recent | High | Low | Top Raters
Reviews: 1,845 | Ratings: 7,712
Photo of MDekker
4.8/5  rDev +10.6%
look: 4.5 | smell: 4.5 | taste: 5 | feel: 4.5 | overall: 5

A: Pours out solid black. A layer of light brown head oozes to the top and then recedes, leaving a rim of head around the edge. Basically, it looks like it should.

S: Rich, of dark coffee, dark chocolate and other dark roasty things. The alcohol is there too. This comes the night after I had Sam Adams Imperial Stout, and this one is winning so far.

T: All the roasted flavors are there, but some rich fruit notes come out as well, and then the hops kick in to finish it off, with their own sizable punch, which makes for a really nice balance. The alcohol is there too. I'm just so pleased, that I'm going to go and give it a 5 on taste, which is rare for me. It's...really good.

M: This is good too. I could ask for a smidge more carbonation, but then I'm just being fussy.

D: The serious alcohol and hops were wear me out, but this sure is good. So, screw it, this gets a 5 too.

 886 characters

Photo of Scrapss
4.79/5  rDev +10.4%
look: 4.75 | smell: 4.5 | taste: 5 | feel: 4.75 | overall: 4.75

Poured straight down the middle of a Turbinator

A: Black as night. Thick 2 finger dark brown head. no active up-carb or down-carb on side of glass. head subsides to a 4 mm disk all the way down to empty. Deep brown at edges.

S: Deep roasted mats, chocolate, coffee, huge phenolics, just a touch of pleasant campfire.

T: As expected, giant wallop of very intense and deeply roasted malts. A touch of smoke butts in, with that campfire bitter voting its share very modestly. I have had a lot of porters and this rendition just seems to be incredibly well constructed and geared for taste.

M: Creamy as can be. Roasty notes yield to that light smoke/fire. Bitterness comes from over-roasted malt and campfire smoke. Pleasant levels of each. Slight chalkiness at ultimate finish as it warms past cellar.

O: Imperial porter has met its match. All other comes, beware. You'd be hard pressed to improve upon this. I am left wondering what a few years aging could even do for this brew.

Anyone who says that stout and porter is the same style needs their head examined. And drink an FIS.

 1,085 characters

Photo of degerbah
3.81/5  rDev -12.2%
look: 4.5 | smell: 3.5 | taste: 4 | feel: 4 | overall: 3.5

Pours an opaque blackwith very little milkshake colored head.Smell is slightly of coffee with a lot of malt and a hint of something botanical. Perhaps hops. The taste is initially less complex with the smell. Primarily tasting of coffee, with a heavy licorice after taste. Not nearly as sweet as I'd hoped and very very boozy towards the end. Perhaps should be left to cellar for some time as it tastes a little raw, like it needs to mellow a bit. For my money I'd rather have KBS, Breakfast Stout, Backwoods Bastard, or really most of their other beers. Too much licorice for me.

 580 characters

Photo of ahq514
4.05/5  rDev -6.7%
look: 4 | smell: 4 | taste: 4 | feel: 4.5 | overall: 4

Poured from 12 oz bottle into NB globe glass. Bottled on date has worn off, but I bought it in Jan 2011, so about a year old.

Pours a thick, black color, with a very light, brown tinted head. Appears to have low carbonation. Light lacing.

A bunch of things going on here. Typical chocolate and coffee notes, leaning more towards milk chocolate. A fair amount of smoke in the aroma as well. Some earthy hops, and lastly alcohol.

Starts out with roasted coffee notes and milk chocolate. Transitions to a bitterness from the hops. Finishes pretty smoky, peppery, and dry. Good amount of warming alcohol as well.

Thick and full bodied, low carbonation. Even with the amount of alcohol present, it is fairly drinkable, although I will enjoy this over the next hour or two.

A good RIS, if you like them smoky. I love beers with a great smoke complement to them, but I think it could be dialed back a bit to get the roasty and chocolate profiles more to the fore. Still a great beer and would recommend everyone who likes imperial stouts to give this one a go.

 1,058 characters

Photo of matttttYCE
4.02/5  rDev -7.4%
look: 3.5 | smell: 4 | taste: 4 | feel: 4.5 | overall: 4

Appearance - Poured into my Deschutes balloon glass/snifter, this one has a nice dark mocha colored head, a little more than 1 finger high. Head fades pretty quickly to a thin covering of bubbles and a ring around the edges. Color of the beer is motor oil black.

Smell - Aroma is not as intense at first as I expected for a 10.5% RIS. As I pick through this, I get notes of deep roasted malts, smooth and silky dark chocolate, some hints of coffee, subtle vanilla notes, also some light smokiness and char and hints of dark fruit and tart cherry. After a while, as this warms up more, more flavors come out and I get licorice and what I assume to be anise notes. Probably one of the first times I've been really been able to identify anise.

Taste - Tons of roasted malt flavor, lots of very dark chocolate taste like I just bit into strong dark chocolate, more smoke and charred aspects to the taste than I got from the nose (but not too much that it's offensive), just a dash of vanilla in there, some of the licorice and anise from the nose, and notes of dark fruit/cherry closer to the end.

Mouthfeel - Quite a nice feel. Thick creamy consistency (almost chewy), carbonation is pretty light, basically full bodied, with a finish that is pleasant, subtle, moderate in length, and a bit dry.

Overall - At first I really wasn't getting much in the aroma (even after it warmed a bit from cellar temp ~50 degrees), and I thought it was just the brew, so I started drinking it. Then I didn't get all that much from the taste either. So I let it warm further and finally got the characteristics to shine through. So you know, you might want to let this one warm a little more than usual. Anyways, a very nice example of an RIS. This isn't my favorite of the style, but still one I'm quite glad to have tried. Thank you very much for this one McNuts!

 1,849 characters

Photo of schwaeh
3.85/5  rDev -11.3%
look: 4 | smell: 4 | taste: 3.5 | feel: 4.5 | overall: 4

2011 bottling.

A: Pours totally pitch black with 1/4" of brown head that fades into a thin ring. Lots of sediment.

S: The stand outs are hops, roasted malts, and espresso. Dark chocolate, yeast, and cocoa come out as well. This still smells bitter ~5 months out.

T: Yes, still very bitter. Hops, charred malt, and espresso are still leading this several months after bottling. Bakers chocolate and some yeast are present, must be those floaties. The alcohol is present but blended into the flavor well enough.

M: Thick and somewhat grainy. Coats the mouth and leaves a lingering bitterness.

O: I remember my jaw hitting the floor when I first tried this last winter. I think I may have gotten pickier or maybe its the weather, but I think the bitterness is slightly over-the-top. I do like hops and espresso so I can enjoy this, but this may be a little harsh for many people. All in all a solid RIS that I look forward to trying at a far advanced age, much like Storm King.

 979 characters

Photo of rodney45
4.53/5  rDev +4.4%
look: 5 | smell: 4.5 | taste: 4.5 | feel: 4.5 | overall: 4.5

A: Completely opaque. Espresso colored small head that with a 10.5 abv, im really impressed by how long it stays around. Not big, even with a vigorous pour. Very representative of the style.

S: Burnt toffee, espresso, semi sweet chocolate, and crystal malt.

T: First notes are huge bitter espresso flavors, with cacao, and kaluha. Secondary flavors are of a hodgepodge of multiple different malts, dense and indiscernible. Third flavor profile is of English style porter hops, with a very american/west coast style yeast character.

M: This beer is as thick as old used motor oil. Imagine 5 shots of espresso left to sit and evaporate for a week, this beer is as thick as the remainder of what would be left. Low carbonation, very bitter (more from the coffee than the hops), low alcohol ethers, very heavy, and more or less dry towards the finish.

O: Wow, this beer blew me away. Very reminiscent of the breakfast stout, except on steroids. Again, great fare from founders. Have not been disappointing by even one of their beers. Keep it coming.

 1,053 characters

Photo of NCBeernut
4.87/5  rDev +12.2%
look: 4.5 | smell: 5 | taste: 5 | feel: 5 | overall: 4.5

Really really black with a big ass creamy 3 finger head - this is the darkest brown head I have ever seen on any beer. It falls to a nice thick layer of foam.

Espresso and cream with a heavy dusting of hop oils turns to a rich chocolate aroma with hints of vanilla and anise. Enough alcohol in the nose to let you know its there. I hope this tastes as good as it smells.

Oaky earthiness - very woody. Plenty of resinous hop oils similar to Storm King only more subdued - not overpowering. Nice roasted barley flavors meld with hints of chocolaty espresso. Words don't do it justice. Ultra smooth and creamy - so chewy and desert-like. Alcohol is dangerously hidden, but still leaves a nice warm feeling.

Just about a perfect RIS. Best I have ever had.

 754 characters

Photo of MPLS
4.43/5  rDev +2.1%
look: 4.5 | smell: 4 | taste: 4.5 | feel: 5 | overall: 4.5

Nabbed this bottle from DLD and am ready to indulge, thanks to ThomasHardy.

A: Pours nice and silky. An aggressive pour yielded a small 0.5cm head. Nice coffee saliva-like froth. Lacing persists through what I have drank so far.

S: Coffee, molasses, malts, chocolate, and love.

T: Much better than anticipated, like the breakfast stout with less coffee like bitterness. Up front coffee and malts, followed by sweetness, and a dry mildly bitter finish with chocolate goodness left on the tongue. ABV becomes hidden in this guy or maybe I have just been drinking too many big beers?

M: Silky smooth, vicious, perhaps the beers best quality.

D: Regret that I only traded for one bottle, but it's a great single taste. Will have to search out when more trading or when founders is available in Minneapolis.

 807 characters

Photo of 1up
4.65/5  rDev +7.1%
look: 4.75 | smell: 4 | taste: 5 | feel: 4.5 | overall: 4.75

Poured into a Spiegelau tulip from a 12oz bottle.

A- Opaque dark brownish black. No light gets through. A vigorous pour yields a 1.5 finger head. Looks like motor oil which indicates a lot of flavor to come.
S- Aroma isn't too powerful but I can detect lots of roasted malt and dark chocolate.
T- Coffee, heavily roasted malt, and chocolate dominate the flavor profile at first followed by an extremely bitter finish. Make no mistake, this is one of the most bitter finishing dark beers I've ever had. No alcohol taste which is impressive for a 10% beer. Very smooth.
M- Extremely smooth mouthful, full bodied, and perfect amount of carbonation. Not as full bodied as Ten Fidy but also not terribly far off. Carbonation consists of small bubbles that complement the brew and blend in well rather than standing out.
O- Wow this is an excellent flavorful imperial stout, one of the best I've had.

 895 characters

Photo of Masonz223
4.47/5  rDev +3%
look: 4.5 | smell: 4.25 | taste: 4.5 | feel: 4.25 | overall: 4.75

Look: pours a motor oil black with a mocha brown head.
Smell: chocolate vanilla roasted coffe smokeiness a little bit of alcohol
Taste: Dark chocolate roasted notes middle of the mouth the smokeiness hits camp
Fire smoke Chared wood vanilla raspberry milk chocolate burnt molasses finishes with a slight raspberry tartness more smoke in the finish roasted hop bitterness and some alchool sweetness and warmth.
Feel: this is a huge beer with a creamy smooth mouth feel.
Overall: This beer is amazing! I shouldn't of expected anything less from founders. The smoked flavores in this beer took it to a whole different level. If you love imperial stouts do your self a favor and try this one.

 689 characters

Photo of lou91
4.43/5  rDev +2.1%
look: 5 | smell: 4.5 | taste: 4.5 | feel: 4.5 | overall: 4

All imperial stout lovers should witness this pour – dark as night and even though it looked like it was going to pour still, a thick dark creamy head came throught and it was there to stay. The nose also makes you say God Damn! It smells like you walked into a chocolate coffee factory. Wow this is a damn good IS. It is so good that it took me an hour to drink 12oz. Thick, bittersweet and with enough alcohol to remind you that beer is good. Today I am an initiate and my mug is back. Thank you founders and buckeye nation.
.

 530 characters

Photo of iconoklaztor
4.5/5  rDev +3.7%
look: 4 | smell: 4 | taste: 4.5 | feel: 5 | overall: 5

Thanks to sprinkle for hooking me up.

Pours a nice black with a head that quickly went away. This is a nice find. Ive wanted to try it and have never seen it on the shelfs. IDK whats the story on this brew?

The taste is nice and firm with dry coffee and a creamy milkyness Ive only seen in oatmeal stouts. This is like a creamy and strong oatmeal stout. I like it

Overall, I would love to get more of this if I can. Ive never seen it hit shelves but believe me if I do I will get tons!

 488 characters

Photo of BSiegs
4.73/5  rDev +9%
look: 5 | smell: 4.5 | taste: 4.75 | feel: 5 | overall: 4.75

Black with a beautiful tan head. Hard to imagine a better looking pour. Great tasting, get a lot of roast, nice bitterness. Supremely full bodied mouthfeel. Fantastic beer.

 172 characters

Photo of abfraser
3.87/5  rDev -10.8%
look: 4 | smell: 4.5 | taste: 4 | feel: 3.5 | overall: 3

A: The motor oil comparison is bit cliche, but this thing really is viscous pouring into the glass. It just looks really thick. Black as black can be. With a dark brown finger's worth of head.

S: Burnt malts, dark chocolate, soy sauce. There are some serious roasted aromas going on here. Intense.

T/M: That thickness on pouring is now absolutely coating my mouth. This is dense. Massive burnt malt flavors. Chocolate and soy sauce there as well. Bitterness on the finish is prominent. This one is a little too thick for my tastes. It's as full bodied as full bodied gets. I'd actually prefer a 6oz bottle of this and wish I opened this with a friend.

D: Doesn't score high on drinkability in my view. I'm having trouble putting an entire glass down, not because it doesn't taste good but because of the huge, intense mouthfeel.

Overall, very tasty, but the intensity of flavors isn't offset by a lighter body that I think would have improved things overall. For instance, I had an easier time putting a Dark Lord down than this--that should say something.

 1,060 characters

Photo of shangwang
4.51/5  rDev +3.9%
look: 4.25 | smell: 4.5 | taste: 4.5 | feel: 4.75 | overall: 4.5

Bottle dated 12/07/12. Poured into a Dogfish snifter.

The first characteristic of this beer that really stood out was how viscous the body was as I poured it. Initially I was left with a full thick finger of cocoa head, which reduced to a thin layer leaving scant lacing after a few minutes. The smell was fantastic and rich; baker's chocolate, vanilla, and charred wood stood out with hints of anise. Lots of dark, roasty malt in the taste with a very subtly sweet finish. Very bold, like cold French roast coffee. Mouthfeel is on the heavy side, and very smooth. Fits the beer well.
Great beer to sip at, although it's so good you'll want to have a few. Very satisfying.

 673 characters

Photo of trep
4.28/5  rDev -1.4%
look: 4.5 | smell: 4 | taste: 4 | feel: 4.5 | overall: 5

12 fluid ounces of black gold...texas tea. Small milk chocolate head that fades quickly to form a ring around the outside of the glass. A shimmer of ruby around the edges when held to the light. Looks pretty wonderful. Classy looking bottle too.

Dark chocolate, roasted malt, and the faintest hint of cinnamon, interestingly enough. Definitely a fair amount of alcohol coming through in the nose as well. Faint hints of fruity hops as it warms.

A ton of hop bitterness in this one initially that fades to the typical RIS flavors. Chocolate, roasted malt, and dark fruits are all present and very balanced. No sign of the alcohol that was fierce in the aroma.

Carbonation and body are spot on. Not too thick, but thick enough to coat every surface in your mouth.

Dangerously easy to drink this beast as well.

 821 characters

Photo of ncketchum
4.78/5  rDev +10.1%
look: 5 | smell: 4.5 | taste: 5 | feel: 5 | overall: 4.5

Update from original review on 4-20-2011

Served at cellar temp in a Duvel tulip

A - Pours a motor oil black with 3 fingers dark chocolate head, 1 of which lingers for some time with thick lacing.

S - Smells of chocolate and roasted malt with a hint of alcohol at the end.

T - this is almost like chocolate milk with hops - sweet, chocolate with a bitterness at the end, hints of roasted malt. Not too sweet (less sweet than CBS)

M - mouthfeel is thick, chewy, little carbonation, good amount of alcohol burn at the end

D - what a phenomenal stout. I'm not sure if it is this year's batch or my palate has changed since I last reviewed this one. I definitely need to do a horizontal tasting with FBS, KBS, and maybe break out my bottle of CBS to look at the nuances that make each one unique.

 799 characters

Photo of DevWand
4.27/5  rDev -1.6%
look: 4.5 | smell: 4.25 | taste: 4.25 | feel: 4.25 | overall: 4.25

Looking forward to this for quite some time...Another solid beer from the company!

Pours a midnight black, bitter sweet malty nose.
Tastes of bittersweet chocolate, and malts. Mouthfeel is rich and decadent... Stellar beer!!

I have to say, I do prefer the Breakfast Stout, but that's only because I love coffee notes in my porters/stouts.

 340 characters

Photo of weizenbob
4.84/5  rDev +11.5%
look: 4 | smell: 5 | taste: 5 | feel: 5 | overall: 4.5

Today I'm whetting my whistle with a Founders Imperial Stout and Breakfast Stout whilst I wait patiently for next month's KBS release. This 12 ounce bottle of Imperial Stout was purchased at Pere Marquette Expeditions in Ludington, MI. Founders bottle dates in black ink which is literally impossible to locate on a stout, yet alone read. After the pour, the empty bottle revealed the date to be unintelligible as the ink had been smeared. No worries; I know it's this year's batch.

I poured this into a wine goblet. An aggressive pour yields about half a finger of straight up brown head. The pour is thick and nearly resembles chocolate syrup coming out of the bottle. Head retention is poor but at 10.5% abv I'm not surprised. As far as the color, it is expected that an imperial stout would be near-black, but nary have I seen as dark a stout as this. If I were to christen this shade of black, I would call it "Smell the Glove".

Speaking of the smell, it is pretty awesome, and not the least bit glove-like. Chocolate is huge in the nose. Alcohol is not far behind. The aroma is akin to a chocolate liqueur. There is no subtle this or hint of that. It's just chocolate cranked to 11.

This is smokin' hot on the tongue. The chocolate strikes first, and it is very sweet and syrupy; but its reign is brief. The alcohol smashes its way to the surface like the Incredible Hulk; and this beer is angry! After the alcohol kicks me in the teeth I start to notice the chocolate syrup again, as well as a hint of coffee. There's a nice bite of bitter hops on the finish, which although noticeable, pales in comparison to the chocolaty sweetness and alcohol. How this doesn't come off as boozy is far beyond my comprehension.

This stout is heavy duty in the mouth. It is thick and syrupy and basically everything that you dream a stout should feel like. The carbonation feels mild though I can see small patches of active bubbling on the surface. It's just a heavy beer. The thickness coats the throat on the way down the hatch, leaving surprisingly little alcohol burn in its wake. This is awesome.

The drinkability is superb. As hard hitting as the alcohol is, this is very thick, very smooth and very sweet. The mildly bitter finish reminds you that it's a beer, and if it weren't for the prominent alcohol bite this would receive a perfect drinkability score. It is an amazing sipper of a brew, and if there was ever a candidate for some cellaring experimentation it's this beast. Per usual with Founder's stouts, I will take this four-pack, drink a couple now and stash a couple away for next year. After this alcohol cools off I'm expecting the most velvety chocolaty treat that you can find in bottled form.

For what it's worth, I prefer this to Breakfast Stout. Bring on the KBS!

---

The Two-Schlitz Scale™: (see my profile for an explanation)
Puny lager cannot hurt Imperial Stout! Imperial Stout smash!

 2,916 characters

Photo of Reema
5/5  rDev +15.2%
look: 5 | smell: 5 | taste: 5 | feel: 5 | overall: 5

Serving type: 12 oz bottle into a snifter glass

Pours deep mahogany brown (essentially black). Smell is of intense dark chocolate, roasted coffee, slightly sweet plum scent, with a small amount of hoppiness. Taste reflects the smell beautifully. Initial dark chocolate and toasted flavors lead into a prune/plum like flavor that finishes with a lingering roasty bitterness. Mouthfeel is thick, viscous, and carbonated just right. Overall this is a very good beer with great tastes and scents. An exemplary Russian imperial.

 524 characters

Photo of BeerFink
4.13/5  rDev -4.8%
look: 4.5 | smell: 4 | taste: 4 | feel: 4 | overall: 4.5

Pours black with no hint of light passing through. A thin dark brown head makes an appearance, and hangs around til the end. Aroma of bitter bakers chocolate and alochol. Taste is very big. Starts off creamy and smooth, then quickly moves to a short lived acrid charcoal flavor brought on by black patent. Moving on to rich chocolate and coffee flavors. From there we find some warming alcohol enhanced by citrous hops. Thick and full mouthfeel marked by alcohol that burns the mouth slightly. Finish is dry and roasted with a very slight smokiness. Good offering from Founders, whom I have come to respect.

 607 characters

Photo of stckhndlr
3.87/5  rDev -10.8%
look: 4 | smell: 4.5 | taste: 3.5 | feel: 4.5 | overall: 3.5

A- This is a very heavy beer. By that I mean it feels like it weighs alot in the glass. Pours a very thick pitch black. Dark tan head with lacing that holds the side of glass very nicely. Has the look of used motor oil it's so dark. Light will not get through this one.

S- Smokey caramel, coffee and dark fruit from this one. Has a touch of sweet scents wafting from it too.

T- Caramel and chocolate. Slight hint of smokey bitters to it as well. At over 90 IBUs that is to be expected. Swirling it in the glass intensified the caramel and chocolate flavor while actually reducing the bitterness on the finish. Finish was pleasant that lasted for quite a bit.

M- Thick and creamy but smooth.

O- I am not a huge stout fan but I would drink this again... That is if there was nothing else to drink and this was all I could get. Still better than others I have tried.

 867 characters

Photo of SethB2
4.34/5  rDev 0%
look: 3.5 | smell: 4.5 | taste: 4.5 | feel: 4.5 | overall: 4

Poured from a bottle into a Tulip.

A - Pours a deep, thick black color with fairly small, mocha colored head.

S - Booze soaked brownies combine with overripe dark fruits and a bit of coffee. Fairly sweet overall on the nose.

T - Bready, roasted malt qualities up front, followed by a big coffee blast. Not much for hops, but there are there to keep this from getting too sweet. Very nice.

M - Full as can be, thick and creamy. Very smooth for a beer at 10%.

D - This is a pretty big beer, but I wouldn't have a problem drinking a few of these.

Thanks to Jeff Krenner (I think) for the sample. Either that or thefatkid13. I can't remember where I got this thing.

 679 characters

Photo of mhatters
4.38/5  rDev +0.9%
look: 4.5 | smell: 4 | taste: 4.5 | feel: 4.5 | overall: 4.5

Poured on-tap at TJs

Jet black pour, with a chocolate colored head that bubbled and hung about - small amounts of lace formed in a ring around the glass

Nose is powerful, lots of malt and roast, coffee comes fast and hard, than disapates some when allowed to open a bit. The alcohol is present, as is chocolate and more malt. A molasses like sugar aroma hints about.

Rich, robust and deep flavor - well roasted malts are apparent right off the mark, coffee, chocolate, and some raisin and plum at the back.

Bitter finish, with oak, roasted coffee, and bitter chocolate

This is a huge beer, super rich and chewy, mild carbonation, creamy with a wonderful roasted malt persistence. A great representative of the style and as a stand-alone beer.

 747 characters

Founders Imperial Stout from Founders Brewing Company
4.34 out of 5 based on 7,712 ratings.
  • About Us

    Your go-to website for beer (since 1996), publishers of BeerAdvocate magazine (since 2006) and hosts of world-class beer events (since 2003). Respect Beer.
  • BeerAdvocate Microbrew Invitational

    Join us June 2-3, 2017 in Boston, Mass. for beer, cider, mead, kombucha and sake from over 70 small producers.

    Learn More
  • 10 Years of BeerAdvocate Magazine

    We're celebrating 10 years of BA mag with $10 print subscriptions for US residents!

    Subscribe