Hoppe (Imperial Extra Pale Ale) | Southern Tier Brewing Company

521 Ratings
Hoppe (Imperial Extra Pale Ale)Hoppe (Imperial Extra Pale Ale)

Brewed by:
Southern Tier Brewing Company
New York, United States

Style: American Double / Imperial IPA

Alcohol by volume (ABV): 8.00%

Availability: Year-round

Notes / Commercial Description:
No notes at this time.

Added by shirfan on 04-01-2007

This beer is retired; no longer brewed.

For Trade:
User Ratings & Reviews
Sort by:  Recent | High | Low | Top Raters | Alström Bros
Ratings: 521 |  Reviews: 425
Photo of Raymond69
4.05/5  rDev +0.5%
look: 4.5 | smell: 4.5 | taste: 4 | feel: 4 | overall: 3.5

Pours a golden clear hue. Very nice head with good lacing.

Smell is citrusy, some alcohol comes through with a nice bourbon note.

This beer is of course hoppy, not overdone. I nice malt backbone keeps this in balance.

Mouthfeel is medium, good carbonation.

Drinkability of this high ABV is pretty good.

 308 characters

Photo of chefnash51
4.35/5  rDev +7.9%
look: 4 | smell: 4 | taste: 4.5 | feel: 4.5 | overall: 4.5

A: Light amber golden color. Thick white head that reduces quite a bit leaving behind beautiful lacing.

S: Not as Pungent as other DIPA.. but smelling it and you know it's a DPA.

T: Citrus hops come with a nice malt balence. Alcohol sneaks up on you as it is well hidden. Great smooth after taste.

M: Carbonated very well. Great mouth feel.

D: Great DIPA. Easy to drink, but with all the qualities of a fine DIPA I love.

 435 characters

Photo of giblet
4/5  rDev -0.7%
look: 4 | smell: 4 | taste: 4 | feel: 4 | overall: 4

quite a good DIPA. nice head and carbonation in me glass. nice lace. good hoppy aroma and yummy hoppy taste. i really enjoyed this beer. the abv will sneak up on ya an slap the back of your head when you are bout two thirds into it.

i will seek out some more from Southern Tier. i was happy with this choice.

suckem up and movem out.


 349 characters

Photo of macster
4.2/5  rDev +4.2%
look: 4 | smell: 4 | taste: 4.5 | feel: 4 | overall: 4

22 oz. bomber with detailed description on side of bottle of beer’s specific ingredients.

Pours a translucent bright golden color under a thick, dense 1" bone white head. Spotty lacing clings to the glass as it drains.

The olfactory senses are immediately captivated by the huge hop presence here. A luscious blast of pink grapefruit, citrus rind, tangerine, pine and Juicy Fruit gum start things off nicely. This is backed by an admirable balance of caramel malts, fresh baked bread and a touch of ethanol.

Mouthfeel is smooth, moderately full, creamy and subtley carbonated.

Taste gets a big "WOW!" Superb balance in all departments. Rich hoppy notes of citrus fruits and pine with notable, but slightly more restrained flavors of caramel candy, crystal malts, toffee and fresh bread. The 10% abv makes a sneak peek in the finish nicely warming the whole enjoyable experience up.

Easy going down for a big beer and worth seeking out for sure

 964 characters

Photo of cooncat
4.28/5  rDev +6.2%
look: 4.5 | smell: 4 | taste: 4.5 | feel: 4.5 | overall: 4

Sample from a 22 oz. bomber, poured into a SA glass.

A moderate pour produced a clear golden colored brew, with a creamy white 1" head. The head is long lasting, and leaves sheets of lacing all the way down the glass. Just beautiful!

In the nose you detect the big hop presence easily, but the malt backbone is subdued. According to the bottle, they use Columbus hops up front, and Amarillo hops at the end for aroma. It is dry hopped with both Columbus and Amarillo hops. The nose is as intense as many DIPAs that I've sampled, even though this is listed as an Imperial Pale.

Taste .. Wow! The hops are huge, with a piney and grapefruit taste that just won't quit! This beer is big with hops, but if you swirl a mouthful towards the back of the palate, you will taste the bready malts that hold up the huge hops. Mouthfeel is medium full . Carbonation is just right to be refreshing. The 10% abv is well hidden in the taste, but I assure you that you *will* feel it after consuming a bomber! Enjoy responsibly! IBUs are listed at 83, which definitely puts it in the DIPA class. Drinkability is very good, but, with a 10% abv, you probably should stick to just a couple regular bottles, or one bomber. This beer sneaks up on you!

Southern Tier has done a wonderful job with this brew, and you would be well advised to obtain a sample of this to enjoy. I enjoyed mine with some aged Swiss cheese, but I think most hearty fair would go well with this balance beer. Highly recommended, and I don't say that often in my reviews.


 1,547 characters

Photo of YonderWanderer
3.85/5  rDev -4.5%
look: 3.5 | smell: 3.5 | taste: 4 | feel: 4 | overall: 4

A: Pours a nice dark gold color, almost amber, but not quite. Decent head of foam on it which slowly dissipates leaving some nice lacing behind.

S: Citrus hops come through, not as strong as some other DIPAs, but decently. Oranges and grapefruits up front, a small bit of pine, as well as a bit of caramel and bread from the malt.

T: Again, the citrus hops come through as the dominant flavor, with a great bitter taste through and through. Balanced nicely by the malt, which is subtle, but present. The alcohol is well hidden behind the hops, with just a slight warming feeling at the end.

M: Nice and smooth, with that hops bitterness hitting you all the way through the sip. Carbonated nicely.

D: This is an easily drinkable DIPA. Despite the ABV, it's hidden well enough that you could easily drink a few of these. A good DIPA to have in rotation.

 866 characters

Photo of blitheringidiot
3.73/5  rDev -7.4%
look: 4 | smell: 3.5 | taste: 4 | feel: 3.5 | overall: 3.5

Pours as a filtered amber golden hue topped with a settled ivory cap allowing for some sticking lace in the glass.

Nose is a lightly balanced floral bouquet of Tang juice and bready malt.

First swigs: Orange peel all the way. Tang juice meets pineapple. Juicy citrus mix. Spree candy. Malts in check.

Soft carbonation with a firm finish. Slightly cloying candy lolipop.

Last swigs: Hidden 10% ABV within a big ole American balanced pale.

 450 characters

Photo of tavernjef
4.57/5  rDev +13.4%
look: 4 | smell: 4.5 | taste: 4.5 | feel: 4.5 | overall: 5

Semi smeared glaze of honeyish gold in color and a very small capping of whitish foam. Tons of lacing trickles across the glass in holed sheets and tattered strings.

Aroma is big on piney hops at first, very soft, yet broad and fresh with a green sprucey waft over a taint of orange oils and other citrusy things that peak a bit more towards tropical as it sits. Resinous qualities also poke through as it warms giving a bit more depth and interest of cannibus and floral accents.

Taste is just as good, lots of fun tropical fruits spark juicy parts of orange, peach, tangerine, and pineapple. Pine tones are there in a good duration of bitterness underneath and always in check. Nothing overwhelmingly huge here. But damn flavorful and quite fresh and juicy. Kinda oily and resinous, which is quite welcome, keeps a great forward rounded tone of body thats creamy full and juicy fresh. The bitterness is wonderfully plain and piney with lots of growing resinous qualities and lofting citrus juices and slight pith and peel action as it trails off into the finish. Bits of pineapple remain with a bit of the pine very late and among the little hop burps that I get from downing the stuff!

Feel is pretty full, oily, lavish, juicy, clean, creamy, and fortified with hoppy goodness. Very nice balance and tone throughout the entire session. Smooth, sensual, and tropically delicious. The bitterness hits just right for me in the citrus and pine resined hoppyness.

Absolutely drinkable by a bunch! A very well toned and flavorful Dbl IPA by Southern Tier. A big thanks goes out to beachbum1975 for the hook up of this fine ale!

 1,638 characters

Photo of Sammy
3.95/5  rDev -2%
look: 4 | smell: 4 | taste: 4 | feel: 3.5 | overall: 4

This beer is not marketed as a double IPA, rather a double Pale. While bitterness is significant, so is the malting down.Commercial description:This limited palette is an exercise in minimalism, with refined elements which are deliberately selected. As a double IPA, certainly stands out in relative drinkability and in not whallopping the nose or mouth with hops.

 364 characters

Photo of EStreet20
4.65/5  rDev +15.4%
look: 4.5 | smell: 4.5 | taste: 4.5 | feel: 5 | overall: 5

Been looking forward to trying this "Imperial Extra Pale Ale" as the label calls it.

22 ounce bomber bottle. De Ranke long stemmed tulip glass.

A - A very bright translucent golden color. Lots of tiny bubbles rushing through to feed a nice sized head of near white foam. some nice half moon rings of lace on the glass as I empty the glass, perhaps a bit too quickly.

S - Nice hop aromas, both of the grapefruit variety as well as some piney undertones.

T - Wow. Actually a bit smoother and more balanced than I expected. After bracing myself for a hop hit I'm getting a very smooth tasting pale. The alcohol is evident only in the finish, and only slightly, which is otherwise dry.

M - A light to medium bodied feel, which is suitable for this crisp tasting brew.

D - The alcohol really hides here and the flavor is excellent. Really makes you want more. As the bottle text cautions, be careful with this one because it is hard to believe that 10% ABV hides here.

Notes: I really think this beer has been classified as a DIPA because of its name more than anything. I remember it was initially listed as an APA. It seems to be a bit of a hybrid beer but is excellent all around either way.

 1,210 characters

Photo of jcdiflorio
4.72/5  rDev +17.1%
look: 4.5 | smell: 5 | taste: 4.5 | feel: 4.5 | overall: 5

poured into a flaired tulip glass from a 22oz brown bomber crimped cap.Screened painted label reminds me of a Rogue label has a lot of info about the beer on it.

Slightly hazy,light copper color. Creamy white head the kind you can control by the pour,lots of staying power. Very tiny bubbles tightly knit streaming all around the sides of the glass with streams also surging fron the center.Clumps of lace down the sides of the glass.

Sugary,fruity aroma grapefruit/pinapple some toffee,toasty malt aromas also come through. Has a slight tinge of grain alcohol. .Very pleasing clean and fresh. One of those aromas you can't pull away from.

Lots of complexity at first a bit overwhelming. Leafy,oily hoppiness,piney,grapefruit with a tangerine like citrus taste. Sugary taste throughout,slightly burnt,with sweet carmell/toffee.Finishes clean,astringent with a very sharp,grapefruity,citrusy taste lingering The alcohol is well hidden just a hint. Amazingly well balanced,the taste reminds me a bit of their Unearthy.

Very full and very creamy mouthfeel. Execellent drinkability for a beer this big. Put down a bomber like it was a 12 oz bottle. Has such a creamy mouthfeel goes down dangerously easy. Be carefull with this one. Highly recomended if you like double ipa's although the bottle says imperial extra pale ale.

 1,332 characters

Photo of Imstillthegman
4.38/5  rDev +8.7%
look: 4.5 | smell: 4 | taste: 4.5 | feel: 4.5 | overall: 4.5

Many thanks to nlmartin for this bomber...an extra in a recent trade.

This brew pours a nice golden-orange color with excellent clarity. Big, frothy eggshell head forms and that last 1/8 inch just won't go away. Awesome lacing that looks like an ant farm made from styrofoam instead of dirt. Them little boogers must of been busy...look at all of those tunnels!

The smell goes from sweet caramel malts to fruity citrus hops. Caramel, grapefruit, lemon, orange peel...they're all here.

The flavor made me take another look at the bottle. Somehow I missed the "imperial" on the label. I was expecting a pale ale. Once I poured it into my glass, though, I knew I had an Imp in my possession. All I know is this one gives their Unearthly a run for it's money. "Hoppe" from start to finish with some good caramel malt balance. Citrus hops dominate with orange, grapefruit, and lemon all here. The malts give it a nice sweetness that keeps your lips from going down your throat.

Fuller, medium bodied beer with above average carbonation. The abv isn't really noticeable in this monster. Slight dryness and bitterness in the aftertaste, but far less than one would expect. I must search this bad boy out and gets me some more. Yum.

 1,236 characters

Photo of umustdrink
4.37/5  rDev +8.4%
look: 4.5 | smell: 5 | taste: 4 | feel: 4 | overall: 4.5

Muchos Gracias to BeerTruth, the greatest trader ever.

A - Hazy pale yellow color with light orange tints. Rocky white head fades to a film, thicker around the edges. Lacing is medium, mostly sticking a few mm above the beer.

S - I can smell this beer from a few feet away! Rich citrus hops, not overwhelming at all; they are balanced nicely with a sugary, fruity (grapefruits or maybe pineapple) sweetness and a very faint spice. It smells awesome.

T - Taste starts with a little hoppy bite, right on the tip of the tongue, with a light bitterness. This lingers for a while, then enters an earthy green grass like bitter-sweetness. I thought this was a bit unpleasant at first but I grew to enjoy it. Grassy, earthy bitterness finishes out the taste.

M - Consistency and carbonation both at a medium level.

D - I like it. It's pretty easy drinking, the alcohol is barely detectable. Interesting flavor and a really nice smell. Thanks again Adam!

 962 characters

Photo of Osiris9588
4.32/5  rDev +7.2%
look: 4 | smell: 4.5 | taste: 4.5 | feel: 4 | overall: 4

650ml bottle, capped, with not date. Pours a clear bronze with a frothy white head, which show good retention and leaves a considerable amount o sticky lace.

The aroma is all about the hops, piny, herbal, and very fragrant. The flavor though is not a one trick pony hop slaughter though. The malt provides a nice foundation, adding an at time creamy, velvety base, which on top the varied notes of herby, piny, citrusy, and woodsy hops snap, crackle, and pop. For a 10%'er, the alcohol is masterfully buried.

The mouth is medium-bodied and well-carbonated, though grows a little oily and syrupy by bomber's end. This brew demonstrates solid complexity, as it begins with mild, bright citrusy hops on the front, then moves into a creamy, malty center, then hops return, more pungent and nutty on the dry-then-sticky finish. This a very solid brew overall, probably my favorite by the Southern Tier clique.

 911 characters

Photo of Foxman
4.05/5  rDev +0.5%
look: 4 | smell: 4 | taste: 4 | feel: 4.5 | overall: 4

It pours a fairly hazy krugerrand gold. A single finger of bubbly off-white head scallops out gradually. EKG's of lacing pattern the inside of the glass.

In the aroma, a soft framework of mildly sweet malt has also a muted caramel note. Toffee joins Amarillo citrus and crisp pine. A slight grassy character drifts with a thin stripe of alcohol.

Upon tasting, the malt is roundly sweet with sugary caramel creme. The hops are considerably less distinct here but there are floral, pine, and dry citrus intimations. The alcohol is readily apparent. Malt returns with an earthy sweetness that is soon dried by a finish of lingering, crisp bitterness. The balance is a bit out of kilter for the style, but it still holds a very pleasant profile.

Medium bodied, it has a full-mouth creaminess that's silky slick on the palate.

At what point does an imperial pale ale become an IPA? This one blurs the line, but it still speaks some APA lingo. It's not truly balanced, which is unusual for the style, but that's no obstacle, and who really knows what's what once something becomes imperial, for what that's worth? The ABV is bigger than it presents, which is saying something, so you do feel it after a time. No matter, it goes down with nary a care. Hell, whatever it is, the result is tasty, drinkable, and well worth my time, this time, and again in the near future.

 1,379 characters

Photo of Cresant
2.99/5  rDev -25.8%
look: 4 | smell: 2.5 | taste: 3 | feel: 3.5 | overall: 3

Poured this 22 oz. brown bottle into a Stone IPA glass. No date. A bold pour creates more than three fingers of white head. The body is clear, light golden-brown.

Smell was muted at the beginning. Oranges. Floral notes later.

Taste was of sweet malts matched by hops bitterness. Balanced as an APA should be but ramped up like a DIPA. Alcohol is evident. Strong without full flavor. Unfortunately, this just doesn't do much for me (Similar to ST Unearthly IPA).

Mouthfeel was medium to full in body. Light lip coating hops oils. I will not seek this one out again.

 575 characters

Photo of Viggo
4.5/5  rDev +11.7%
look: 4.5 | smell: 4.5 | taste: 4.5 | feel: 4.5 | overall: 4.5

On tap at Coles in Buffalo.

Pours a hazed golden/yellow, small white head, nice lacing, leaves a solid ring on its way down. Smell is nice pine and orange, pine, tangerine, very resiny, caramel, smells like an orange creamsicle. Taste is orange cream, pine and citrus, orange/tangerine, caramel, touch of alcohol, more pine and orange in the finish, clean bitterness. Mouthfeel is full bodied with low carbonation, nice balance, very nice finish, super easy to drink, fantastic beer.

 486 characters

Photo of BeerTruth
4.1/5  rDev +1.7%
look: 4 | smell: 4 | taste: 4 | feel: 4 | overall: 4.5

22 oz. bomber poured into a pint glass.

Pours a clear light copper hue with a nice two finger fluffy white head that dies down to a nice lacing. Good stickiness. Very spicey hop aroma...clean, tingles the nose. Floral scents mix in there with a bit of pine as well. Taste starts off with a good balance between piney hops and pale malt. Hops then begin to dominate as the tongue dries and bitterness takes over. Mouthfeel is light bodied with a fair amount of carbonation. Goes down quite well, smooth and crisp. For 10% abv, this goes down very easy. Job well done, much better than Flying Dog's attempt at a Double Pale Ale. Pick up this one for sure if you can.

 667 characters

Photo of ClockworkOrange
4/5  rDev -0.7%
look: 4 | smell: 4 | taste: 4 | feel: 4 | overall: 4

Poured from a 22oz. brown bomber bottle into my Sly Fox shaker "pint" glass. Appears a clear copper color with at least two fingers of dense off-white foam. Moderate lacing sticks to the inside of the glass as I make my way to the bottom. Smells of sweet caramel malts, fruity hops, and citrus fruits such as lemon, and orange. Tastes is beautifully balanced between the caramel malts, and the floral grapefruit, orange and lemon from the hops. A notch above medium in both body and carbonation. Very drinkable considering the 10% ABV.

 535 characters

Photo of oakbluff
4.23/5  rDev +5%
look: 4.5 | smell: 4 | taste: 4.5 | feel: 4 | overall: 4

Bomber courtesy of BlankBoy- thanks Paul! As the name says,its a pale straw yellow, clear brew. Head is a beautiful fluffy white with some of the best lacing I've seen in a big american brew (due to the wheat malt?). Nose is of sweet fruit and malt. First sip- piney blast that turns to grapefruit and tickles the nose. After a glass, the hops seem to move towards a more grassy, herbal, woody concoction on the finish. This brew is about the hops- there's not fooling around with it being balanced, and fine by me. The malts are subdued but add a creamy mouthfeel. A nice mix of pale and wheat malt. Drinkability is very high for such a big ass brew- no sign of booziness- just a hop machine. A kick ass brew, and almost up there with the Uneartly in my humble opinion. This brewery hasn't disapointed yet.

 807 characters

Photo of CAMRAhardliner
4.53/5  rDev +12.4%
look: 5 | smell: 4.5 | taste: 4.5 | feel: 4.5 | overall: 4.5

I got this for $6.20 at Downtown Wines in Boston. I love ST bottles, always cool designs and a tonne of info on the beer. Why dont more breweries put info on their labels?

It pours a brassy light orange color with a dense head that lasts for ever and leaves scads of fluffy foam clinging to the glass. The aroma is fragrantly hoppy with equal parts grapefruit and floral notes. Some clean pale malt is in the background.

The first sip reveals a wonderful expanse of hop flavors. Grapefruit, tropical fruit, pine and even a little aspirin is in the mix. As the beer warms a delicate honey malt flavor emerges and provides great balance. The alcohol is slightly spicey and numbing but well hidden. Id believe this was a 7% beer. The mouthfeel is light and smoothly carbonated, like a cask bitter almost. The finish is very long, bitter and full of tangy hop flavor.

This is a fantastically hoppy and drinkable strong beer. Its like the strong beer for hot summer days. Brilliant.

 988 characters

Photo of cbl2
4.85/5  rDev +20.3%
look: 4.5 | smell: 4.5 | taste: 5 | feel: 5 | overall: 5

6/17/2007 $5.75 22 oz. 10.00% No best by date.


Brilliant clarity on a medium brown body with fine, champagne like carbonation that yields an inch of fluffy white head that is slow to settle.


The name speaks volumes here: this is up front in your face hoppyness, with grapefruity hops winning the race there. Underneath it though is a sweet buttered biscuity aroma, which lends this an air of nostalgia, making it all the more appealing.


Huh, I did a doulbe take on this one, because it's been so long since I tasted something so perfect. With all of the carbonation, you would think this would be coarse, yet it dances like a cloud across my palate (I gave the mouthfeel a 5, but only because I couldn't go any higher; it's that good). As it does so, it imparts some of the most heavenly flavors I've encountered in a beer: at one moment blisteringly bitter from the citrusy hops, then turning nicely sweet. There are tropical undertones present, then there is a pine sensation, with a nice biscuit thrown in.

It sounds haphazard, and as if the whole thing would be a mess, but the flavors mesh together so well that I have no choice but to rate this a masterpiece. I've enjoyed everything Southern Tier has thrown at me so far, but this truly floored me in its excellence. The high ABV is nicely masked to boot, so you might find yourself drinking a few of these ambrosias. Run, do not walk to the store to get your hands on this one.

 1,496 characters

Photo of WVbeergeek
4.72/5  rDev +17.1%
look: 4.5 | smell: 5 | taste: 4.5 | feel: 4.5 | overall: 5

First off thanks to the Southern Tier sales reps in Pittsburgh market very good people that put up with me at the Penn Brewfest this past year, so thank you Carl and Karen. Appears a beautiful copper glowing tone poured into my Augustjin chalice forms a large off white cream colored head forms thick atop the beautiful body leaves easy to pick out bands of lace with each sip very defined and intricate in the lace department. Aroma contains a perfumey wild tartness with grapefruit citrus peels a simply awesome smell to it somewhat of a musky sweetness white grapes bright sweet malts come off somewhat vinous like I stated but man this is great stuff this one will keep you hunched over smelling your glass. Flavor I see why this one isn't labeled a DIPA despite it's ten percent abv and 83 IBUs because it's brewed so well that nothing seems over the top really comes off as an Imperial Extra Pale Ale. Flavor is consumed with light bready malts with biscuit caramel highlights this beer deliver American hops throughout the experience grapefruit, mineral earthiness, and a healthy dose of flower power overcomes this beer wow I'm loving the hoppe that is this beers highlights I can't wait to try Backburner Barleywine, the alcohol in this brew is evident but it gives off the deepest hop burps despite the balanced flavor. Mouthfeel is great silky smooth literally, with carbonation that floats on the palate I'm well aware of the medium bodied ale that seems amazing to me. Drinkability overall comes off so well that the 22oz drains itself without a problem great stuff I'm craving more that's a good sign I will be back to the beer store before these seven dollars sell out great stuff.

 1,696 characters

Photo of Duster72
3.89/5  rDev -3.5%
look: 3.5 | smell: 4.5 | taste: 3.5 | feel: 4 | overall: 4

Pours a clearish golden color with a very big dense head. Aroma is big hops as soon as the lid is removed. You can definitely smell the citrus and pine hops as well as some sweet malts and yeast. Taste is very fresh hops with malty sweetness to offset. Had a slightly dirty/resiny taste to it. Medium bodied, creamy mouthfeel. Very nice DIPA. The category needs to be changed on this one, cause it's no APA!

 407 characters

Photo of WesWes
4/5  rDev -0.7%
look: 4 | smell: 4 | taste: 4 | feel: 4 | overall: 4

The beer pours a gold color with a thick frothy white head that slowly fades to lacing. The aroma is good. It has a refreshing pale malt scent along with a nice hop aroma. It shows no sign of the alcohol. The taste is good. It has a simple pale malt base along with a boat load of hops in the flavor and in the finish. It goes down easy and finishes awfully bitter. The mouthfeel is fine. It is a full bodied beer with good carbonation. This is an interesting brew. It's light with lots of hops. I enjoyed it, but I was expecting something different. All in all; a good drinker.

 578 characters

Hoppe (Imperial Extra Pale Ale) from Southern Tier Brewing Company
4.03 out of 5 based on 521 ratings.
  • About Us

    Founded in Boston in 1996, BeerAdvocate (BA) is your go-to resource for beer powered by an independent community of enthusiasts and professionals dedicated to supporting and promoting better beer.

    Learn More
  • Our Community

    Comprised of consumers and industry professionals, many of whom started as members of this site, our community is one of the oldest, largest, and most respected beer communities online.
  • Our Events

    Since 2003 we've hosted over 60 world-class beer festivals to bring awareness to independent brewers and educate attendees.
  • Our Magazine

    Support uncompromising beer advocacy and award-winning, independent journalism with a print subscription to BeerAdvocate magazine.