Could anyone point me towards some scientific studies and articles that explain the process of hop fade and other factors contributing to beer, especially hop-forward beer, degrading over time? I've been told by breweries here in Germany that their IPAs are fine for up to 12 months, that they feel justified setting 18 months best-by dates for their hoppy beers, that higher ABV means longer durability and that craft beer, in general, only gets better with time, like wine. I also vividly remember a brewer from a famous Cologne Kölsch brewery telling me that cans are terrible vessels for beer because they make it taste bad. It's incredibly how stuck in the past people can be around here. I don't know if these people actually believe that or if they are only saying it for PR reasons, but I'd really like to be able to hit them with some cold, hard facts about the importance of freshness with hoppy beer when arguing with them and link them some scientific studies as proof. It may seem rather sad that this is necessary when talking to breweries and brewmasters who should know better, but this just seems to be where we are here in Germany, where 12 month best-by date for industrial macro beers have been pretty much ingrained into the German consciousness over decades.